Psychology Test 2 Old Test Q's

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self-serving

While those from Western cultures tend to have a strong self-serving bias, those from Eastern cultures tend to have a __________ bias.

prognosis

___________ is a forecast about the probable course of an illness.

self-discrepancy

A woman who describes herself as "frank and honest" but who, in fact lies frequently is manifesting her ______________.

blunting self-awareness

Substance use in response to feelings of self-discrepancy is an example of a type of coping technique known as ___________________.

atherosclerosis

_________________ is known to be the principal cause of coronary heart disease.

competition

The classic Robbers' Cave State Park study illustrates the correlation between prejudice and ____________.

pessimistic

People who attribute their setbacks to internal, stable, and global factors are exhibiting a _____________ explanatory style.

Paul Ekman

_____________ and his colleagues have identified six primary emotions that have distinctive facial expressions.

stereotypes

The tendency of humans to categorize allows for cognitive processing, but also contributes to the creation of ____________.

noise

Bill's use of the word "broad" when referring to women offends Betty and makes it hard for her to follow his meaning. This type of miscommunication is called ____________.

physical fitness

Recent studies suggest that _____________ is associated with a decreased risk for:
-colon cancer in men
-breast cancer in women
-reproductive cancer in women

self-concept

An organized set of beliefs about one's personal qualities and typical behavior constitute one's ___________.

just world

Defensive attributions help people maintain belief in a "__________"

is compatible with

Persuasion tends to work best when the receiver's initial position on an issue ________________ the position advocated by the source.

aggressive or violent

Baumeister suggests that a narcissist who experiences an ego threat is likely to become ______________ or _____________.

social comparison

Research done by numerous investigators suggests that for individuals with similar talents, ___________ plays a critical role in the development of self-esteem.

facial expressions

The basic emotions are designated as such because the ___________________ associated with them are recognized across world cultures.

coronary heart disease

The Type A behavior person is most closely linked to the physical ailment ___________________.

Fritz Heider

_________________ was the first theorist to suggest that people tend to attribute behavior to either internal or external causes.

self-verification

The notion that people prefer to receive feedback from others that is consistent with their own self-views is called _______________.

downward social comparison

An individual who recently had preventive bypass surgery might think, "at least i didn't have a serious heart attack like my older brother did." This thinking exemplifies the strategy known as __________________.

easy-going

The characteristic most closely associated with Type B personality is _____________.

number

Most of us have a __________ of public selves.

situational factors

External attributions ascribe causes of behavior to _________________.

conformity

Asch found that group size had little influence on group __________ if just one accomplice failed to go along with the rest of the group.

causes of behavior

The attribution process refers to the inferences we make about the __________________.

self-fulfilling prophecy

The process whereby expectations about a person cause the person to behave in ways that confirm the expectations is called the ____________________.

hostility

The component of Type A behavior that seems to be most responsible for the increased rate of heart attacks is ____________.

decreased

Studies of the immune system have found that stress is related to ____________ levels of immune activity.

short answers

Deception on the part of another person may be signaled by giving _____________.

stereotypes

All of these are reasons why _________ persist:
-cognitive functionality
-confirmation bias
-self-fulfilling prophecy

drinking

Excessive __________ is correlated with:
-heart disease
-brain disease
-cirrhosis of the liver

defensive attribution

_______________ is a tendency to blame victims for their misfortune, so that one feels less likely to be victimized in a similar way.

michelangelo phenomenon

There is evidence that a close partner's support and affirmation can bring the loved one's actual self-views and behavior more in line with his/her ideal self. Researchers refer to this as the ________________.

proxemics

The study of people's use of interpersonal space is called __________.

credibility and likeability

Vicki is a persuasive, successful salesperson. It is most likely that she possesses the characteristics of ____________ and _________.

conformity

______________ is promoted by:
-normative influence
-ambiguity of the situation
-bystander effect

communication

Elements in the __________ process include:
-sender, message, distorting noise

facial displays

Among the display rules for men in many world cultures is found the pressure to inhibit __________ of emotion.

paralanguage

__________ includes all vocal cues other than the content of the verbal message itself.

25-29.9

To be considered medically overweight, a person would have a BMI of _____-______.

sensitivity

Nonverbal __________ varies by all of the following: social competence, age, gender.

equity

Rather than high self-disclosure, the critical factor that helps couples avoid stress may be _______ in self-disclosure.

3500

In order to lose one pound in a given length of time, you must burn _______ more calories than you consume.

hard time

If you use self-control resources by resisting temptation in a given situation, you may have a _________ resisting the next temptation.

decode

In interpersonal communication, speaker is to encode as receiver is to ___________.

proximity and attractiveness

The great popularity of the internet as an arena for socializing has caused psychologists to reevaluate the importance of ____________ and __________ is relationship development.

personal

In explaining the causes of behavior, the fundamental attribution error refers to the overestimation of the role of ___________ factors.

confusion, knowledge

Nutritional deficiencies among americans are most likely a result of ___________ and lack of __________ about nutrition.

1981, 1969

Although the U.S. AIDS epidemic is commonly said to have stqarted in ____________, evidence indicates the disease may have first arrived here in _________.

possible

According to the book, ________ selves refer to one's conceptions about the kind of person one might become in the future.

familiarity

The mere exposure effect is most closely associated with the factor of _____________ in initial attraction.

blunting self-awareness

Substance use in response to feelings of self-discrepancy is an example of a type of coping technique known as _________________.

comparison level

In social exchange theory, a _______________ refers to one's personal standard of what constitutes an acceptable balance of rewards and costs in a relationship.

self-discrepancy

A woman who describes herself as "frank and honest" but who, in fact, lies frequently is manifesting her _____________.

competition

The classic Robbers' Cave Park Study illustrates the correlation between prejudice and _____________.

pessimistic

People who attribute their setbacks to internal, stable, and global factors are exhibiting an _______________ explanatory style.

Paul Ekman

_________ and his colleagues have identified six primary emotions that have distinctive facial expressions.

stereotypes

The tendency of humans to categorize allows for cognitive processing, but also contributes to the creation of _____________.

empathy

Keisha's friends like to talk with her about their personal concerns because she seems to understand how they feel, and she never puts them down for their feelings. Keishas behavior exemplifies _____________.

self-concept

An organized set of beliefs about one's personal qualities and typical behavior constitutes one's __________.

is compatible with

Persuasion tends to work best when the receiver's initial position on an issue ____________ the position advocated by the source.

social comparison

Research done by numerous investigators suggests that for individuals with similar talents, ____________ plays a critical role in the development of self-esteem.

physical attractiveness

The matching hypothesis suggests that people of similar ______________ gravitate toward each other.

self-verification

The notion that people prefer to receive feedback from others that is consistent with their own self views is called _____________.

relationship maintenance

_______________ involves the action one takes to sustain the desirable qualities of a relationship.

public selves

Most of us have a number of _____________.

situational

External attributions ascribe causes of behavior to _________ factors.

causes of behavior

The attribution process refers to the inferences we make about the _____________.

consumate love

According to Sternberg's triangular theory of love, when passion, intimacy, and commitment are all present in a relationship, then ______________ is said to exist

social exchange theory

The idea that interpersonal relationships are governed by perceptions of rewards and costs is a key premise in the ______________

short answers

Deception on the part of another person may be signaled by giving _____________.

reciprocal liking

____________ refers to the fact that we tend to like others who like us?

defensive attribution

__________ is a tendency to blame victims for their misfortune, so that one feels less likely to be victimized in a similar way.

emotionally, activity

In the United States, women's friendships are more often ____________ based, whereas men's tend to be ____________ based.

western

The notion that love is a prerequisite for marriage is a product of 18th century ________ culture.

men, women

Research findings suggest that _______ are more romantic, and _________ are more sensitive to problems that occur in relationships.

proximity

_________ refers to geographic, residential, and other forms of spatial closeness.

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