Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

How does communication contribute to physical health?

Without communication, we cannot survive. When we don't have human interaction with others, our physical health can suffer

-touch

needs for companionship, affection, relaxation, and escape

Relational Needs

the way we communicate with others shapes how we see ourselves

Identity Needs

treats communication as a one-way process

Action Model

In the Action Model, a _____ formulates and idea.

source

In the Action Model, the source ______ the idea in the form of a ______.

encodes;message

In the Action Model, the message is sent thru a communication ________.

channel

In the Action Model, a _______ decodes the message.

receiver

In the Action Model, interpretation is affected by _____.

noise

treats communication as a two-way process; suggests that receivers provide feedback thru verbal and nonverbal behavior and the context of communication affects its meaning

Interaction Model

treats communication as a multi-way process and suggests that both parties in conversation are simultaneously senders and receivers and communication flows in both directions at once.

Transaction Model

In the Interaction Model, receivers provide _____ thru _______ and ________ behavior.

feedback; verbal and nonverbal

In the Interaction Model, the ______ of communication affects its meaning.

context

In the Transaction Model, both parties in conversation are simultaneously _______ and _______.

senders and receivers

In the Transaction Model, communication flows __ ____ _______ at once.

in both directions

Who gives communication its meaning?

People

Language is ______.

arbitrary

Our language is a representation of _____, not the ____ itself.

ideas; idea

the content of the message

literal meaning

signals about the relationship in which the message is being communicated

relational implication of communication

describes how well your communication achieves its goals

Effectiveness

describes how well your communication complies with the rules and expectations of the social situation

Appropriateness

awareness of one's behavior and how it affects others

Self-Monitoring

pay close attention to the way they look, sound, and act in social situations

high self-monitors

are oblivious to their own behaviors and other people's reactions to them

low self-monitors

being able to assess what is going on to be appropriate and effective in a given context and then modify behaviors accordingly

Adaptability

the system of learned and shared symbols, language, values, and norms that distinguish one group of people from another

Culture

the groups of people with whom we identify

In-Groups

groups we see as different from ourselves

Out-Groups

Cultures vary in their _______, ________, ______, and ______.

symbols, languages, values, and norms

are groups of people who share values, customs, and norms related to mutual interests or characteristics besides their national citizenship

Co-Cultures

believe their responsibility is to themselves

Individualistic Cultures

believe their responsibility is to their communities

Collectivistic Cultures

People in ___-_____ cultures are taught to communicate directly and to "say what they mean"

low-context

People in ____-_____ cultures are taught to convey meaning through subtle behaviors and contextual cues rather than through verbal directness

high-context

People in __-____-_____ cultures believe that no one person or group should have excessive power

low-power-distance cultures

In ___-____-_____ cultures, certain groups have great power and the average citizen has much less

high-power-distance

People in _____ cultures cherish traditionally masculine values and believe in sex-differentiated roles

masculine

People in _____ cultures cherish traditionally feminine values and tend not to believe in sex-differentiated roles

feminine

People in _____-______ cultures are drawn to the familiar and are relatively unlikely to take risks

uncertainty-avoiding

People in _____-______ cultures are open to novel situations and are accepting of people and ideas that are different from their own

uncertainty-accepting

People in ______ cultures view time as a finite commodity

monochronic

People in ______ cultures view time as more holistic and fluid and less structured

polychronic

_____ are phrases whose meaning is purely figurative

Idioms

_____ is language whose technical meaning is understood by people within a co-culture

Jargon

______ are movements that express ideas

Gestures

Gender is a function of :

gender roles, biological sex, and sexual orientation

_____ ____ are culturally constructed norms for how men and women are expected to act

Gender roles

3 types of gender:

masculinity, femininity, androgyny

Biological sex is affected by:

psychology, genetics, anatomy

_____ ________ describes the sex or sexes to whom we are attracted

Sexual orientation

Types of sexual orientations:

Heterosexuality
Homosexuality
Bisexuality
Asexuality

a sexual orientation characterized by sexual interest in members of the other sex

Heterosexuality

a sexual orientation characterized by sexual interest in members of one's own sex

Homosexuality

a sexual orientation characterized by sexual interest in both men and women

Bisexuality

a sexual orientation characterized by a general lack of interest in sex

Asexuality

describes individuals who conflict between the sex they were born into and the sex they feel they should be

Transgendered

people that are born with internal organs that do not match their external appearance (i.e. born with a penis, but have ovaries instead of testies)

Intersex

individuals who have undergone surgical procedures to bring their physical body in line with their self-image

Transsexual

communication is seen as a primary way to establish closeness

Expressive Talk

communication is seen as a means to solve problems and accomplish tasks

Instrumental Talk

talking more, interrupting more frequently

More-Powerful Speech

asking more questions, using hedges ("sort of," "might be")

Less-Powerful Speech

shorter sentences, more sentence fragments, more references to "I" and "me," more references to quantity

Masculine Linguistic Style

longer sentences, more qualifiers, more references to "we" and "they"

Feminine Linguistic Style

In emotional communication, women express more ______ emotion, and men express more ______ emotion.

positive; negative

Among adults, ____-___ touch is more common than ____-___ touch.

other-sex; same-sex

In same-sex pairs, women touch each other ____ than men do.

more

Among adults, women use ____ affection behaviors than men do.

more

Your ____-_____ reflects your stable ideas about who you are.

self-concept

Your self-concept is your _____.

identity

Self-concepts are multifaceted. True/False

True

Self-concepts are never subjective.

False. (Answer: partly subjective)

Self-concepts are enduring but ______.

changeable

According to the Johari Window, there are aspects of our personalities that others can see in us but that we are unaware of. These are known as the ____ aspects of ourselves.

blind

Factors that affect our self-concept:

personality and biology, culture and gender roles, reflected appraisal, social comparison

We manage our self-concepts thru ____-________.

self-monitoring

_____-_______ ______ can reinforce our self-concepts.

Self-fulfilling prophecies

this is your subjective evaluation of your value and worth as a person

Self-Esteem

Self-esteem is affected by ____ and ___.

culture and sex

3 fundamental needs with respect to self-esteem:

-need for control
-need for inclusion
-need for affection

adjusting our behavior to project a desired image

Image Management

Image management is ______ and _____.

collaborative and complex

With image management, we manage _____ ______.

multiple identities

3 Face Needs:

-Fellowship Face
-Autonomy Face
-Competence Face

the act of intentionally giving others information about ourselves that we believe to be true but we think they don't already have

Self-Disclosure

Self-disclosure is ______ and _____.

intentional and truthful

Self-disclosure varies in _____ and _____.

breadth and depth

What roles influence self-disclosure?

cultural and gender

Benefits of self-disclosure:

-Enhancement of relationships and trust
-Reciprocity
-Emotional release
-Assistance to others

Risks of self-disclosure:

-Rejection
-Chance of obligating others
-Hurt to others
-Violation of other people's privacy
-Risks of disclosing online

the process of making meaning from the people in our environment and our relationships with them.

Interpersonal Perception

3 stages of perception:

-Selection
-Organization
-Interpretation

what we choose to pay attention to

Selection stage in Perception process

how we classify the stimulus

Organization stage in Perception process

what meaning we assign to the stimulus

Interpretation stage in Perception Process

Factors that affect the accuracy of interpersonal perceptions

-Physiological states and traits
-Culture and co-culture
-Social roles

our first impression of someone overshadows our later impressions of the person

Primacy Effect

our most recent impression of someone is more powerful than earlier impressions

Recency Effect

a predisposition to perceive only what we want or expect to perceive

Perceptual Set

the inability to take another person's perspective

Egocentrism

the explanations we give for our own and other people's behaviors

Attributions

Attributions vary according to their:

-Locus
-Stability
-Controllability

Other people's behaviors are due to internal, stable causes

Fundamental Attribution Error

Ways to improve our perceptual abilities:

-be mindful
-check your perceptions

a structured system of symbols used for communicating meaning

language

Characteristics of language:

-symbolic
-arbitrary
-governed by rules
-layers of meaning
-varies in clarity
-bound by context and culture

Language is never ambiguous. True/False

False. (Answer: Some language is ambiguous)

Language varies in ______.

abstraction

______ language comprises words with strongly positive or negative connotative meanings.

Loaded

The denotative meanings of loaded language may be ________ ______.

emotionally neutral

Language is bound by _____ and _____.

context and culture

_____ define and differentiate us.

Names

We make assumptions about people on the basis of their names. True/False

True

Power of Language: 5 important contexts:

-Naming
-Persuasion
-Credibility and Power
-Affection
-Comfort

How does persuasion appeal to ethos?

relies on a speaker's respectability, trustworthiness, and moral character

How does persuasion appeal to pathos?

relies on listeners' emotions

How does persuasion appeal to logos?

relies on listeners' ability to reason

the extent to which others perceive us to be competent and trustworthy

Credibility

Credibility empowers us. True/False

True

Several forms of language can enhance or diminish credibility:

Clichés
Dialects
Equivocation
Weasel words
Allness statements

Humor violates ______.

expectations

Humor can enhance/decrease communication.

enhance

Humor can be harmful. True/False

True.

vague, mild expressions symbolizing something more harsh or blunt

Euphemisms

comprises informal words often understood only by others in a particular group

Slang

defamatory statements made about others

Libel and Slander

a defamatory statement made in print or some other fixed medium

Libel

a defamatory statement made aloud, within earshot of others

Slander

rude or obscene language

Profanity

a form of profanity meant to degrade or intimate people based on their:
Sex
Ethnicity
Religion
Sexual orientation
Disability status
Political or moral view

Hate Speech

Ways to improve language use:

Avoid:
-Shared knowledge errors
-Shared opinion errors
-Monopolization errors

includes those behaviors and characteristics that convey meaning without the use of words

Nonverbal Communication

Some nonverbal communication behaviors _____ words.

accompany

Nonverbal communication is the primary means of expressing emotion. True/False

True

10 channels of nonverbal communication:

-facial displays
-eye behaviors
-movement and gestures
-touch behaviors
-vocal behaviors
-use of smell
-use of space
-physical appearance
-use of time (chronemics)
-use of artifacts

study of touch

Haptics

study of movement

Kinesics

eye behaviors

Oculesics

the study of smell

Olfactics

says we attribute positive qualities to attractive people

Halo Effect

Culture influences nonverbal behavior by:

greeting behavior, time orientations, touch, vocalics

Sex influences nonverbal behavior by:

Emotional expressiveness
Eye contact
Personal space
Vocalics
Touch
Appearance

Interpreting nonverbal behavior:

-Be sensitive to nonverbal messages
-Decipher the meaning of nonverbal messages

Expressing nonverbal messages:

-Spend time with highly expressive people
-Participate in games that exercise your nonverbal expression skills

Your own understanding of who you are as a person comprises you:

self-concept

The way you tend to think and act in most situations defines your:

personality

Low self-monitors are more likely than high self-monitors to appear unsophisticated or socially awkward. True/False

True

Scientific studies have confirmed that girls have lower self-esteem than boys. True/False

False

See More

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set