Sociology final

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What might a sociologist say about the reasons people select a marriage partner?
-people marry becuase they fall in love
-there is no accounting for personal taste
-typically a person marries someone of similar social background
-when it comes to love, opposites attract

Typically, a person marries someone of similar social background

Peter Berger describes using the sociological perspective as seeing the _______in the _______?
-good;worst tragedy
-new;old
-specific;general
-general;particular

general;particular

Which of the following is a requirement of sociological investigation:
-be curious
-ask questions
-look at the world around you

All of the above

To evaluate a theory, sociologist:
-gather data or facts
-follow the conventional wisdom of their society
-are guided by what they personally want to be true
-all of the above

gather data or facts

The chief characteristic of the _________paradigm is its view of society as orderly and stable.
-social-conflict
-structural-functional
-social-interactions
-social functional

structural -functional

which of the following is NOT found within the American Sociological Association guidelines for eithial research?
-researchers must always perform their research several times in order to ensure accuracy
-researchers must disclose ther sources of funding for research
-researchers must protect the privacy of subjects taking part in a research project
-researchers must ensure the safety of subjects takinf part in a research project

Researchers must always perform their research several times in order to ensure its accuracy

What type of research method was used in Philip Zimbardoas study, the "stanford County Prison"
-the experiment
-the survery
-participant observation
-secondary analysis

The experiment

What research method asks subjects to respond to a series of items in a questionaire or an interview?
-secondary research
-participant observation
-the experiment
-the survery

The survey

In a questionaire, the question, "Please express your opinions about the threat of terrorist attacks at home," is an example of which of the following?
-a close-ended format
-open-ended format
-open and shut format
-random format

An open-ended format

Which sociological reseach method provides the best chance to understand behavior in a natural setting?
-the experiment
-participant observation
-the survery
-secondary analysis

Participant observation

Three campus roommates are talking about why they are in college. A sociological view of going to college highlights the effect of?
-age, becuase college students tend to be young
-class, because college students tend to come from families with above-average incomes-our place in history, becuase a century ago going to college was not an option for most people-all of the above

All of the above

Makind use of the sociological perspectives encourage?
-challenging commonly held beliefs
-accepting conventioal wisdom
-the belief that society is mysterious
-people to be happier with their lives as they are

people to be happier with their lives as they are

Sociology provides an advantage to students preparing for later careers by preparing them for work:
-only as teaching sociologist
-only in nursing
-onl as clinical sociologists
-in all the above careers and many others, including buisness, politics, education, law enforcement, and social work

All the above

which of the following historical changes is amoung the factors that stimulated the development of sociology as a discipline?
-the founding of the roman catholic church
-the rise of industrial factories and cities
-the power of tradition
-a belief that our futures are define by "fate"

the rise of industrial factories and cities

the basic idea of the symbolic-interaction approach is that society is:
-an arena of conflict between categories of people
-the product of people interacting in everyday situations
-a system that operates to benifit people

the product of people interacting in everyday situations

the social-conflict approach draws attention to:
-how elements contribute to the overall operation of society
-how people construct meanng in their interaction
-patterns of social inequality
-the stable aspects of society

patterns of social inequality

Which of the following is the best example of a latent function of going to college?
-providing skills needed for later jobs
-keeping young people out of the labor force that may not have jobs for them
-gaining the knowledge required to be an active and thoughtful citizen
-giving young people experience living on their own

keeping young people out of the labor force that may not have jobs for them

using the structural-functional approach, which of the following questions might you ask about marriage?
-What do people think marriage means?
-How does marriage benefit women and men unequally?
-What are the consequences of marriage for the operation of society?
-Why do almost half of all marriages end in divorce?

what are the consequences of marriage for the operation of society?

If you were trying to measure the " social class" of various people. you would have to keep in mind that?
it is necessary to specify exactly what you are measuring.
-you must measure this in every way possible.
-there is no way to measure "social class."
-everyone agrees on what "social class" means.

you must measure this in every way possible

what process involves deciding exactly what is to be measured when assigning value to a variable?
-operationalization
-reliability
-conceptualization
-validity

conceptualization

an apparent although false, association beween two variables that is caused by some thrid variable is called?
-aspurious correlation.
-an unproven correlation.
- an unreliable correlation.
- an invalid correlation.

a spurious correlation

sociologists cannon precisely predict any persons behavior because?
-human behavior is highly complex and has many causes
-social patterns that are found in one time and place may not be found in others
-humans may respond to te presence of an observer in unexpected ways
-all of the above

all of the above

With regard to the process of measurement, which of the following is true?
-For measurement to be reliable, it must be valid
-For measurement to be valid, it must be reliable.
-Measurement that is reliable is always accurate.
-Reliability and validity are the same measurement.

for measurement to be valid it must be reliable

the recognized and intended consequences of a social pattern are reffered to as?
-latent functions.
-manifest functions.
-true functions.
-dysfunctions.

manifest functions

Using the social-conflict approach, a sociologist might highlight which of the following?
-income differneces amoung young people in high school
-gender inequality in college sports
-racial inequality in a company's hiring and promotion practices
-all the above

all the above

using the structural-functional approach, whoch of the following questions might you ask about marriage?
-What do people think marriage means?
-How does marriage benefit women and men unequally?
-What are the consequences of marriage for the operation of society?
-How can we help people find more pleasure in their marriages?

what are the consequences of marriage for the operation of society

Looking at the operation of U.S. schools, the social-conflict approach might lead a sociologist to conclude that:
-the function of schools is to teach needed skills.
-the meaning of schooling varies from child to child.
-schools have been a major path to social advancement.
-tracking provides some students with far better schooling than others.

tracking provides some students with far better schooling than others

whoch of the following examples illustrates a micro-level focus:
-the operation of the U.S. economy
-patterns of global terrorism
-two people on an airplane getting to know one another
-class inequality in the armed forces

two people on an airplane getting to know each other

which of the following is a manifest function of sports?
-providing recreation and physical conditioning
-fostering social relationships
-generating jobs
-teaching a society's way of life

providing recreation and physical conditioning

which sociological research method provides the best chance to understand social behavior in a natural setting:
-the experiment
-participant observation
-the surveyc.
- secondary analysis

Participant observation

This process involves deciding specifically what is to be measured when assignng value to a variable

Operationalization

The term for the value that occurs most often in a series of numbers

mode

consistency in measurement

reliability

measuring exactly what one intends to measure

validity

the value that occurs midway in a series of numbers ( that is, the middle case)

Median

an unverified statment of a relationship between variables

hypothesis

a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change

social-conflict paradigm

a framework for buliding theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability

structural- functional paradigm

a framework for building theory that sees society as the product of everyday interaction of individuals

Symbolic-interaction paradigm

If an Islamic woman is disturbed by another person while she is bathing, what body part would she be most likely to cover?
a) her feet c)her genitals
b)her breasts d) her face

d

By what point in their lives do most young people in the United States today become sexually active.
a) When they marry
b) By the middle of college
c) By the end of high school
d) By the age of 13

c

If we look back in history, we see that once a society develops birth control technology,
a) Social control of sexuality become more strict.
b) The birth rate actually goes up.
c) Attitudes about sexuality become more permissive.
d) People no longer care about incest.

c

Prostitution is classified as being what type of crime?
property c)white collar
b)victimless d) violent

b

___________ refers to a view stigmatizing anyone who is not heterosexual as"queer"
a) Asexuality c) Bisexuality
b) Heterosexism d) Homophobia

b

Applying Merton's strain theory, a person selling illegal drugs for a living would be an example of which of the following categories?
a) Conformist c) Retreatist
b) Innovator d) Ritualist

b

Most people arrested for a violent crime in the United States are?
a)white c)Hispanic
b)African-american d) Asian

a

Labeling theory states that deviance ?
a.)is a normal part of social life.
b) always changes people's social identity.
c) arises not from what people do as much as how others respond.
d) All of the above are correct

c

)_______________ refers to a criminal act against a person or a person's property by an offender motivated by racial or other bias?
Legal Harrassment
b) Hate crime
c) Ethnic Cleansing
d) Constitutional racism

b

The concept of due process means that anyone charged with a crime must receive?
a)fair notice of the proceedings.
b) a hearing on the charges according to law and with the ability to present a defense
c) a judge or jury that weighs evidence impartially
d) all of the above
e) none of the above

d

What is the medicalization of deviance?
a) the recognition of the true source of deviance
b) the objective, clinical approach to deviant behavior
c) the transformation of moral and legal issues into a medical condition
d) the discovery of the links between biochemical properties and deviance

c

Attachment, Involvement, Commitment, and Belief are all type of socialcontrol in?
differential association theory c) labeling theory
b) functional theory d) control theory

d

According to Merton's strain theory, one response to the inability to succeed is _________, or the rejection of both cultural goals and means -so one, in effect, "drops out" ?
innovation c)conformity
b) retreatism d) ritualism

c

According to Durkheim, which of the following is not a function of deviance ?
a) Responding to deviance helps bring people together
b) Deviance affirms cultural values and norms
c) Deviance discourages social change
d) Responding to deviance brings people together

c

Which of the following is a reason for punishment?
Rehabiltation c) Societal Protection
b) Deterrnance d) retribution

d

A sociological profile of people in the U.S. armed forces would reveal a large share of young people who:
A)

join the military to earn money for college or just to get out of a small home town.
B)

are of working-class background.
C)

come from the South, where local culture is more supportive of the military and where most
military bases are located
D)

All of the above are correct.

d

Which category of the U.S. population has the greatest share of female-headed households?
white, non-Hispanics

B)

Hispanics
C)

African Americans

D)

Asian Americans

c

The functions of schooling include:
A)

creating new culture.

B)

helping to integrate a diverse society.
C)

socializing the young.

D)

All of the above are correct.

d

A symbolic-interaction approach to health and medicine emphasizes:
A)

the meanings people attach to health and illness.
B)

how societies must excuse ill people from most responsibilities.
C)

social inequality in terms of health.
D)

All of the above are correct.

a

Comparing the rates at which children learned in school and in their home environments, that the main cause of the achievement gap between rich and poor children is:
A)

differences in schools.

B)

differences in personal ability.
C)

differences in home environments.

D)

differences in personal health.

c

The term "empty nest" refers to:
A)

families whose children have grown and left home.
B)

women who choose to remain single.
C)

couples who are unable to have a child.
D)

women who marry but choose to remain childless.

a

Today's baby boomers are often called the "sandwich generation" because:
A)

their families rarely eat meals together.
B)

they spend time caring for both children and aging parents.
C)

of their taste for fast food.
D)

they do not easily mix family and work responsibilities.

b

Society shapes human health because:
A)

social inequality affects health.
B)

technology affects health.
C)

cultural patterns define what is or is not healthy.
D)

All of the above are correct.

d

Which concept refers to assisting in the death of a person suffering from an incurable disease?
A)

gerontocracy

B)

euthanasia
C)

Hippocratic assistance

D)

bereavement

b

An example of the social capital advantage of well-to-do students in U.S. schooling is parents who:
A)

have more time to be involved with their children's education
B)

value schooling and encourage their children.
C)

spend more time reading to their children.
D)

All of the above are correct.

d

In the United States, ________ people tend to vote Democratic, while ________ people vote Republican.
A)

high-income; low-income

B)

urban; rural
C)

rural; urban

D)

conservative; liberal

b

To which region of the world would you travel if you wanted to visit many countries in which the law permits polygamy?
A)

Scandinavia

B)

Latin America

C)

North America

D)

Africa or

d

The concept "ageism" refers to:
A)

prejudice and discrimination against the elderly.
B)

failing to provide necessary care for the elderly.
C)

the reality that we all grow old.
D)

forcing elderly people to retire from paid work.

a

The concept "homogamy" means that:
A)

people marry others who are socially like themselves.
B)

marriage is based on romantic love.
C)

people marry because they benefit from being married.
D)

women marry older men.

a

Causes for the increase in the elderly population include:
A)

an increasing birth rate and decreasing life expectancy.
B)

decreases in both the birth rate and life expectancy.
C)

a decreasing birth rate and increasing life expectancy.
D)

increases in both the birth rate and life expectancy.

c

Terrorism refers to:
A)

the use or threat of violence as a political strategy by an individual or group.
B)

organized, armed conflict between groups.
C)

the use of military force by a nation state.
D)

organized, armed conflict between individuals

a

In today's high-income nations, children are:
A)

able to earn what it costs to raise them.

B)

an economic asset.
C)

leaving home to work earlier than ever before.

D)

an economic liability.

d

The recent trend in racially mixed marriages has been
A)

stable--the numbers are holding steady.
B)

rising in good economic times, and falling in bad economic times.
C)

downward--the numbers are falling.
D)

upward--the numbers are increasing.

d

What is the term for a facility that provides care and comfort for people as they approach death?
A)

elder hostel

B)

nursing home

C)

hospital

D)

hospice

d

For which of the following reasons might you argue that the United States is not truly democratic?
A)

There are millions of unelected bureaucratic officials.
B)

There is so much economic inequality.
C)

Because most people have never voted.
D)

Both A and B, but not C, are correct.

d

Politics is a social institution that is defined in terms of:
A)

types of authority.
B)

the system of elections.
C)

income distribution.
D)

the distribution of power and societal decision making.

d

Assume you have a business that provides products to older people. Looking ahead, you have reason to expect:
A)

a bright future, because your target population is increasing in size.
B)

a dim future, because your target population is getting smaller.
C)

your target population will eventually disappear.
D)

little change, because your target population will remain stable.

a

Which of the following is a reason that the black population is at a higher risk for contracting the HIV virus?
A)

more poverty

B)

More IV drug use
C)

Higher rates of STD's

D)

All of the above are reasons for HIV in the black community

d

Which of the following is considered a behavior placing people at high risk of HIV infection?
A)

anal sex

B)

using drugs that impair judgment
C)

sharing needles

D)

All of the above are correct.

d

Of all high-income nations, which country relies the most on a direct-fee market system to pay for medical treatment?
A)

Great Britain

B)

Japan
C)

Sweden D) United States

d

The most common way people in the United States pay for medical care is which of the following?
A)

HMOs
B)

Medicare and Medicaid
C)

the government's universal health care program
D)

private insurance programs

a

From a social-conflict point of view, capitalism fails to support human health because:
A)

it does not encourage development of new medical techniques and technologies.
B)

it makes quality of care dependent on income.
C)

physicians have little financial incentive to work.
D)

All of the above are correct.

b

Mounting research suggests that cohabitation:
A)

strengthens a couple's commitment to one another.
B)

increases the financial security of children.
C)

may actually discourage marriage.
D)

All of the above are correct.

c

Which of the following are counted among the functions of the family?
A)

regulation of sexual activity

B)

socialization of the young
C)

social placement

D)

All of the above are correct.

d

Which of the following concepts refers to a political system in which a single family rules from generation to generation?
A)

monarchy

B)

totalitarianism

C)

aristocracy

D)

democracy

a

A family that includes parents and children as well as other kin is called:
A)

a family of affinity.

B)

a conjugal family.
C)

a nuclear family.

D)

an extended family.

d

Which of the following is a latent function of schooling?
A)

teaching about the U.S. way of life

B)

providing child-care
C)

teaching job skills

D)

ensuring some common culture

b

Read the four terms below. Which of the them is NOT used by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross in her study of dying?
)

negotiation

B)

acceptance

C)

rejoicing

D)

denial

c

Read the following statements. Which of them is TRUE?
A)

Democratic societies are especially vulnerable to terrorism.
B)

Who a "terrorist" is and who a "freedom fighter" is is often a matter of definition.
C)

Identifying and effectively targeting terrorists is usually difficult.
D)

All of the above are correct.

d

A system of marriage that unites one woman with two or more men is called:
A)

polygamy.

B)

polygyny.
C)

polyandry.

D)

All of the above are correct.

c

The concept "gerontology" refers to:
A)

the study of aging and the elderly.

B)

a medical specialty dealing with old people.
C)

estimating people's life expectancy.

D)

a treatment that restores vitality to seniors

a

A system of marriage that unites two partners is called:


polygamy.

B)

monogamy.

C)

polyandry.

D)

polygyny

b

The main point of disengagement theory is that
A)

seniors want to be independent like everyone else.
B)

society remains orderly by disengaging older people from positions of responsibility.
C)

seniors want to remain active.
D)

seniors do not require as much care as most people think they do.

b

The family is a social institution that is found in:
A)

most but not all societies.
B)

every society.
C)

about half of human societies.
D)

high-income nations but not in most low-income nations.

b

The main point of activity theory is that:
A)

a high level of activity enhances personal satisfaction in old age.
B)

some seniors have far more wealth than others do.
C)

seniors should retire knowing they have earned the right to relax.
D)

seniors should not try to do more than they feel they can.

a

Polytheism refers to:
A)

acceptance of many religions as true.

B)

belief that all things in the world are sacred.
C)

belief in many gods.

D)

openness to new religious experience.

c

The main purpose of marriage is:
A)

Bearing and raising children
B)

Having a healthy sex life
C) Mutual Happiness and fulfillment

D)

Sharing financial resources

a

Which of the following are reasons for the rise in divorce rates in the United States?
A)

romantic love often fades.
B)

more women are less economically dependent on men
C)

rising individualism
D)

All of the above are correct.

d

People who attract followers, including Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, display:
A)

traditional authority.

B)

power rather than authority.
C)

charismatic authority.

D)

rational-legal authority.

c

The concept "endogamy" refers to marriage between:
A)

people related by birth.

B)

people of the same social category.
C)

people of the same sex.

D)

people of different social categories

b

What is the effect of industrialization on the typical number of children in a family?
A)

Families have fewer children.
B)

Families have more children.
C)

Families no longer care about how many children they have.
D)

Families have the same number of children.

a

Karl Marx believed that religion:
A)

focuses life on the present rather than the future.
B)

supports social inequality.
C)

treats existing society as secular.
D)

threatens the power of the state.

b

The practice of tracking in schools means that:
A)

the students who get the best schooling are usually those who are more privileged to begin with.
B)

students from disadvantaged backgrounds end up in higher tracks where they cannot do the work.
C)

students do not get to study what they are interested in.
D)

the brightest students get the worst teachers.

a

A charismatic leader is most likely to be found in a:
A)

church.

B)

cult.

C)

denomination.

D)

state church.

b

According to social conflict theorists, which of the following in not one of the ways that families aid in
the perpetuation of social inequality?
A) property and inheritance C) patriarchy
B) bilateral descent D) race and ethnicity

b

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