Chapter 1 Criminal Justice and Scientific Inquiry

40 terms by EIREENA_QNZ22 

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Experiential Reality

Things we know from direct experience

Acceptance of Tradition

When we rely on the "truths" of our culture we are accepting knowledge derived from the majority

Explanation

When we attempt to answer questions about why something happens (The purpose of our research)

Evaluation

Determining whether a program designed to reduce burglary actually had the intended effect is an example of what

Probabilistic Patterns

Social regularities represent what

Agreement and Experiential

We live in a world of two realities which are

Exploration, Description, Explanation, Application

Four purposes of research are

Inaccurate observation

When attempting to make sure that what you are looking at is what you intended to look at you avoid what

Observation

the keystone of inquiry

Illogical reasoning

During observation, if you choose to follow "the exception that proves the rule", an idea that doesn't make any sense you have made what error?

ClJ research sometimes yields mistaken results, and we are wise to accept research findings with caution even if they come from experts

True

Making observations in a more deliberate way helps reduce error

True

Experiential and Empirical

We live in a world with two realities 2

Application

The final stage of the research is

Problem Analysis

Justice organizations are increasingly using techniques such as ____ to study patterns of cases and devise appropriate responses

Application

Your college has implemented a new policy on campus regarding underage drinking, you want to evaluate its effects, what is the purpose of this research

As you review the research literature, you should make note of how other researchers approached the problem, consider whether the same designs will meet your research objective

True

Authority

When we trust the judgments of people who have special training e.g lawyer, Dr , what are we accepting

There are several errors in human personal inquiry such as overgeneralization, inaccurate observation, replication, and selective observation

False

Agreement Reality

Things we consider real because we are told they are real

Measurement and interpretation

Clj Research is organized around 2 basic activites

Theory, Data collection, Data analysis

3 Major aspects of the overall scientific enterprise

Survey

The most appropriate method for studying both general concern and fear for personal safety

Observation

Whereas people often observe inaccurately, science avoids such errors by making a ___ ,a careful and deliberate activity

Policy

Is not included in the CRAAP test

Each of us is born into and inherits a culture made up in part, of firmly accepted knowledge about the things of the world

True

Conscious Activity

One way social science differs from our casual day to day inquiry is

Evaluate specific, Policy Analysis

2 major types of applied research

The existence of exceptions does not support the existence of regulations

True

Logical and Empirical

Scientists must have 2 types of support before they will agree on the reality or something

Explanatory Research

Reporting why some people believe that the police are doing a good job while other people do not is an example of what

Informed Consumers of research

One objective of this book is to help future clj professionals become

Logical and Empirical

An assertion must have both ___ and ___ support

Exploration, Description, Explanation, Application

The four types of research

Selective observation is a danger of overgeneralization

True

Performance reports, Statistical tabulations

Most Clj professionals routinely view what type of date

Selective Observation

If you have concluded that a particular pattern exists and have developed a general understanding of why you may be tempted to ignore the facts in the future that don't fit. if you do you have made what error

Descriptive

You observe police activity in your city for one week and then you describe what you observed is what type of study?

Agreement Reality

Traditional beliefs about patrol effectiveness, response time, and detective work are examples of what

Causal Human Inquiry is a more rigorous way of investigation than probability and causality

False

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