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When drawing conclusions about behavior, psychologists rely on

their everyday observations of people.

If you ever take a course in how to conduct psychological research, you will find
that collecting the facts as they exist may sound simple, but in practice it is very
difficult to do because

the personal biases of the observer may distort the data.

In an experiment, the factor that the researcher manipulates is known as
(a)_________ variable; the researcher measures the (b)__________ variable

Independent, dependent

A store owner is trying to determine whether advertising sales increases her
overall profit. If she conducted an experiment, advertising sales would be the
__________ variable

Independent

Suppose you wanted to test the hypothesis that viewing pornographic material
increases aggressive behavior. The dependent variable would be

aggressive behavior

What is the goal of a naturalistic observational study?

To assess the strength of the relationship between (two or more) pre-existing
variables

. What is the goal of an experimental study?

(1) - To make strong causal claims about the impact of one variable on the other.
(2) - To find a general rule to explain a certain human behavior.

A researcher theorizes that people are likely to perspire more when telling
embarrassing stories than when telling funny stories. Volunteers are asked to
record a memory of an embarrassing or a funny incident and their perspiration is
measured. On some days, but not others, the lab where the recordings are done is
very hot. Based on this information, the researcher should be concerned most
about

the presence of a confounding variable

Question above, what is the independent variable?

Content of stories (Emberassing or funny)

. Question above, what is the dependent variable?

Amount of perspiration

In the context of conducting psychological research, systematic control
procedures are intended to

hold constant variables and conditions other than those related to the
hypothesis.

A psychologist is doing research for a pharmaceutical company. The drugs he is
testing are numbered so that he does not know what they are, nor does he know
which participants are receiving which drugs. His participants are not aware of the
types of drugs they take. The systematic control that is being used in this study is
called a

double-blind control technique.

What is "control condition"?

A baseline of comparison

Design a very simple experiment to test the "own-face bias" to see if that is true.
("Own-face bias": People can recognize faces of their own ethnicity more quickly
than faces of other ethnicities.)

your design. (the simpler the better.)
a. your independent variable.
b. your dependent variable.
c. confounds?

Create a very simple experiment using the between-subjects design. Is subject A
assigned in all conditions or only in one condition? Is he in the Control condition
(in your experiment)?

Create a very simple experiment using the between-subjects design. Is subject A
assigned in all conditions or only in one condition? Is he in the Control condition
(in your experiment)?

Why do we need random assignment of subjects to the Experimental and Control
groups?

To make the two groups similar.

Since we normally cannot have access to the full population of interest,
researchers are faced with taking a representative sample of the population.
Which of the following is NOT true of a representative sample?

A representative sample must include members of different age groups,
even when the target population is of children.

What do you investigate in a correlational study?

. How two (or more) variables are related to each other.

What is the range of correlation coefficient?

.Between -1.0 and +1.0

. What is (are) the strongest correlation coefficient(s)?

. -1.0 and +1.0

What does a strongest correlation coefficient indicate? Explain it using your
example.

. Perfect correlation. your example.

What does a positive correlation mean? Explain it using your example

...

What does a negative correlation mean? Explain it using your example

...

After you present your excuse for missing class, your professor tells you that she
has found that the more classes students miss, the lower their test grades tend to
be. This relationship illustrates a(n)

negative correlation

When there is no relationship between two variables, what is the correlation
coefficient?

0 (zero)

Does correlational method allow us to make predictions about one variable based
on information from another variable?

Yes.

In company A, the relationship between motivation and worker productivity is
+0.60, while in company B, the relationship between motivation and worker productivity is -0.90. Based upon this knowledge, which of the following
observations is true?

The capacity to accurately predict worker productivity from worker
motivation is greater in company B.

Suppose that the relationship between the number of asking questions in the class
and the test score is +0.75 in Biology, and -0.15 in Philosophy.

a. a positive correlation. The more questions a student asks in the class, the
higher score the student gets in a test.
b. a negative correlation. The more questions a student asks in the class, the
lower score the student gets in a test.
c. strong
d. weak
e. biology

After collecting data, a researcher determines that states that have instituted a
death penalty have shown a decrease in murders. Assuming that the data are
accurate, what can you safely conclude?

There are fewer murders in states that have a death penalty.

Why does correlation not imply causation?

(1) Directional ambiguity (2) The third variable problem

. Are researchers obligated to respect the basic rights of research participants? If so,
how is this ensured?

Yes, special committee oversees every research proposal.

Question above, what do you call the special committee?

Institutional Review Board (IRB)

What is "informed consent"?

The process in which an investigator gives information about the research and
explain possible risks and benefits that may occur to a participant in the study and
the participant signs a form indicating his/her willingness of participation.
Informed consent should be conducted before the study.

Why do we need IRB and informed consent?

. To protect human subjects' (1) dignity (2) privacy (3) health (4) human rights

When we make assumptions about the causes of behavior, collect and analyze data,
and support or refute our findings based on empirical evidence, we are conducting
__________.

science

A ______________ is a set of related assumptions from which testable predictions can
be generated. .

. theory

One ________________ would be that older adults are better drivers than are young
adults. Thus, a _________________ would be that drivers age 40 and older have fewer
traffic accidents than do drivers age 16 to 39.

theory; hypothesis

What is the most likely scientific reason Dr. Falk would conduct the same study that
her colleague, a psychologist at another university, conducted?

If she achieves the same results, this would suggest that her colleague's
findings were likely not an accident.

A trait, characteristic, or value that changes between or within people, places, objects,
or conditions is a __________.

variable

Jessica wants to conduct a study about differences in jealousy between men and
women. She asks 400 college men and women a series of questions about hypothetical
scenarios of partner infidelity. What is Jessica's population?

All men and women

Jessica wants to conduct a study about differences in jealousy between men and
women. She asks 400 college men and women a series of questions about hypothetical
scenarios of partner infidelity. Which of the following is the most probable reason
Jessica's study may be flawed?

Her sample's attitudes may not truly represent the population's attitudes.

In a descriptive research design, a psychologist will __________.

define and describe a phenomenon of interest

A distinct advantage of naturalistic observation as a research method is that it
____________.

provides an opportunity to examine people acting in their normal environments

A representative sample is a __________.

subset of the population that truly reflects the characteristics of that population

Which of the following is an important mantra of psychologists with respect to
correlational studies?

a. Correlation does not indicate causation.
b. Correlational studies will use more laboratory resources.
c. Correlational data are much more difficult to analyze than other data.
d. None of these. -----------------------

Why is it important for researchers to use a control group in a scientific study?

It is important to show that between two groups which were similar from the
beginning of the study, the one that received the manipulation is the one that
changed.

. Jaleel is a participant in a cognitive experiment, but he does not know if he is in the
experimental group or the control group. The researchers, however, are aware of the
condition to which he has been assigned. The study in which Jaleel is participating is
called __________.

a single-blind study

The arithmetic average of a series of numbers is called the __________.

mean

A class's mean score on the midterm exam was 78.2, and the standard deviation was
15.8. The class's mean score on the final exam was 81.3, with a standard deviation of 4.5.
From these statistical data, one can interpret which of the following?

There was more variability in the scores on the midterm exam than on the final
exam.

The standard deviation of a set of scores will tell us __________.

. the extent to which the scores vary around a mean

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