I/O Psych: ch. 8 & 9.1

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55 terms · chapter 8 & 9.1 key terms

motivation

Concerns the conditions responsible for variations in intensity, persistence, quality, and direction of ongoing behavior.

instinct

Inborn tendency that is thought to direct behavior.

need

Internal motivation that is thought to be inborn and universally present in humans.

drive

Non-human equivalent of "motives" and "needs."

behaviorist approach

Approach developed by B. F. Skinner that placed the emphasis for behavior and directed activity directly on the environment rather than on any internal needs or instincts.

Field Theory

Approach developed by Kurt Lewin, who proposed that various forces in the psychological environment interacted and combined to yield a final course of action.

group dynamics

Field that grew out of the application of Kurt Lewin's Field Theory to industry.

person-as-machine

Metaphor that suggests that people's behaviors/actions are reflexive and involuntary and are performed without conscious awareness.

person-as-godlike

Metaphor that suggests that people are perfectly rational and intentional rather than automatic or reflexive.

person-as-scientist

Metaphor that suggests that people are active information-gatherers and analysts who seek knowledge and understanding as a way of mastering their environment.

limited rationality

The inability of humans to reason and make decisions in perfectly rational ways.

person-as-judge

Metaphor in which an individual seeks information about the extent to which the person and others are perceived as responsible for positive and negative events. The person looks for evidence of intention in the actions of others and considers those intentions in choosing a personal course of action.

work-life balance

Area of research that investigates whether the satisfaction that one experiences at work is in part affected by the satisfaction that one experiences in non-work and vice versa, particularly to the extent that one environment has demands that conflict with the other.

attitudes

Relatively stable feelings or beliefs that are directed toward specific persons, groups, ideas, jobs, or other objects.

Maslow's Need theory

Theory that proposed that all humans have a basic set of needs and that these needs express themselves over the life span of the individual as internal "pushes" or drives. Identified five basic needs sets: physiological, security, love or social, esteem, and self- actualization.

2-factor model

Theory proposed by Herzberg that suggested that there were really two basic needs, not five as suggested by Maslow, and that they were not so much hierarchically arranged as independent of one another.

hygiene needs

Lower-level needs described in Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory. Herzberg proposed that meeting these needs would eliminate dissatisfaction, but would not result in motivated behavior or a state of positive satisfaction.

ERG theory

Theory of human needs proposed by Alderfer who suggested that human needs are best thought of as arranged in three levels: "Existence," "Relatedness," and "Growth."

motivator needs

Higher-level needs described in Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory. Herzberg proposed that meeting such needs resulted in the expenditure of effort as well as satisfaction.

reinforcement theory

Theory that proposes that behavior depends on three simple elements: stimulus, response, and reward. Proposed that if a response in the presence of a particular stimulus is rewarded (i.e., reinforced), that response is likely to occur again in the presence of that stimulus.

contingent reward

System in which a reward depends on or is contingent on a particular response.

intermittent reward

System in which only a portion of correct responses are rewarded.

continuous reward

System in which a reward is presented every time a correct response occurs.

path-goal theory of motivation

First formal work motivation theory to suggest that people weighed options before choosing among them was the Path-Goal theory of Georgopolus, Mahoney, and Jones (1957). Reasoned that if a worker saw high productivity as a path to the goal of desired rewards or personal goals (e.g., a pay increase or promotion, or increased power, prestige, or responsibility), that worker would likely be a high producer.

VIE theory

Motivation theory that assumed that individuals rationally estimate the relative attractiveness and unattractiveness of different rewards or outcomes (Valence), the probability that performance will lead to particular outcomes or rewards (Instrumentality), and the probability that effort will lead to performance (Expectancy).

valence

The strength of a person's preference for a particular outcome.

instrumentality

perceived relationship between performance and the attainment of a certain outcome.

expectancy

An individual's belief that a particular behavior (e.g., effort, hard work) will lead to a particular outcome (e.g., a promotion).

dissonance theory

Theory suggested by Festinger that observed that tension exists when individuals hold "dissonant cognitions" (incompatible thoughts). This approach assumes that individuals always seek some sense of "balance" (i.e., absence of tension) and that they will direct their behavior toward reducing the tension resulting from dissonant cognitions.

equity theory

Motivational theory developed by Adams that suggested that individuals look at their world in terms of comparative inputs and outcomes. Individuals compare their inputs and outcomes with others (e.g., peers, co- workers) by developing an input/outcome ratio.

inputs

The training, effort, skills, and abilities that employees bring to or invest in their work.

outcomes

The compensation, satisfaction, and other benefits employees derive from their work.

comparison other

A co-worker or idealized other person to which the individual compares him or herself in determining perceived equity.

outcome/input ratio

Ratio that results when employees compare their inputs and outcomes to those others (e.g., peers, co-workers) to determine if they are being treated equitably.

person-as-intentional approach

Motivational approach that assumes that individuals are intentional in their behavior.

goal-setting theory

the general concept of a goal is adapted to work motivation. In this approach, a goal is seen as a motivational force, and individuals who set specific, difficult goals perform better than individuals who simply adopt a "do your best" goal or no goal at all.

feedback loop

Connection between knowledge of results and the intermediate states that occur between goal commitment and performance.

control theory

based on the principle of a feedback loop that assumes that an individual compares a standard to actual outcome and adjusts behavior to bring the outcome into agreement with the standard.

self-regulation

Process by which individuals take in information about behavior, and make adjustments or changes based on that information. These changes, in turn, affect subsequent behavior (e.g., strategies, goal commitment).

action theory

includes broad consideration of the role of intention in motivated behavior as well as the connection between intention and action.

action process

starts with a goal, proceeds to a consideration of events that may occur in the future, then to the development of several alternative plans, the selection of a plan, the execution and monitoring of the chosen plan, and the processing of information resulting from the execution of the plan. The last step, feedback, then influences goal development once again.

action structure

Structure that includes the notion that (1) observable action is the result of a number of prior events and plans, hierarchically arranged and (2) the feedback and resulting regulation of actions occur at different levels.

motivational trait questionnaire

A 48-item questionnaire that provides a standardized method of assessing six distinct aspects of general performance motivation.

job enrichment

motivational approach that involves increasing the responsibility and interest level of jobs in order to increase the motivation and job satisfaction of employees performing those jobs.

Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System (ProMES)

A motivational approach that utilizes goal setting, rewards, and feedback to increase motivation and performance.

indicators

Quantitative measures of how well each objective is being met in the ProMES approach.

job satisfaction

Positive attitude or emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experience.

Hawthorne effect

change in behavior or attitudes that was the simple result of increased attention.

value theory

Job satisfaction theory proposed by Locke, in which the relative importance of a particular job aspect to a given worker influenced the range of that worker's responses to it.

overall satisfaction

Overall assessment of job satisfaction that results either from mathematically combining scores based on satisfaction with specific important aspects of work or a single overall evaluative rating of the job.

facet satisfaction

Information related to specific facets or elements of job satisfaction.

Job Descriptive Index (JDI)

One of the most extensively researched and documented job satisfaction instruments; assesses satisfaction with five distinct areas: the work itself, supervision, people, pay, and promotion.

Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire

commonly used job satisfaction instrument that assesses particular aspects of work (e.g., achievement, ability utilization) as well as scores for extrinsic satisfaction and intrinsic satisfaction.

intrinsic satisfaction

Concerns aspects central, or intrinsic, to the job itself, such as responsibility.

extrinsic satisfaction

Concerns aspects extrinsic, or external, to job tasks, such as pay or benefits.

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