Most psychological tests can be placed in one of two broad categories:
C) mental ability tests and personality tests.
The five-factor model _______________ in non-Western cultures.
C) applies with some differences
Brianne likes to explore new experiences and has recently taken up mountain climbing. She is likely to have a high score on Zuckerman's scale to measure
Results of twin studies have supported Eysenck's theory that personality is largely inherited by showing that
B) identical twins are more similar in personality than fraternal twins.
According to Maslow, the self-actualizing person is characterized by
B) freshness of appreciation.
C) peak experiences.
Humanism is a theoretical orientation that
D) emphasizes unique human qualities such as free will and growth potential.
If you clean your room to put an end to your father's constant nagging on the subject, your room-cleaning response has been
D) negatively reinforced.
In classical conditioning, the unconditioned response is a(n) ______ reaction to an unconditioned stimulus.
Which of the following notions is NOT considered one of the major contributions of psychoanalytic theory?
C) Influence of reinforcement in maintaining specific behaviors
Adler's theory stimulated hundreds of studies on the effect of ________. Although these studies generally failed to find support for their hypotheses, more recent family environment studies focusing on the Big Five traits have found some support.
A) birth order
Carl Jung proposed that the unconscious consists of two layers, the ______ and the ______.
B) personal unconscious; collective unconscious
According to Freud, in order to achieve healthy development, a child in the phallic stage must resolve the Oedipal complex and learn to _________ the same sex parent.
D) identify with
A witness to a brutal murder has trouble remembering any details of the crime. According to Freud, which defense mechanism is at work in this example?
Which of the following is NOT considered to be a psychodynamic theory of personality?
D) Rogers' client-centered psychology
Eric studies three hours per day, five days a week. He only misses school when he is sick and is almost never late for class. On which of the following "Big Five" traits would he likely receive a high score?
Using "Roy G Biv" to remember the order of colors in the light spectrum is an example of how ______ can help us remember information.
Until the 1950s, psychologists were found almost exclusively in
B) academic institutions.
Some psychologists prefer to study animals rather than humans mainly because
B) it's easier to control the factors influencing animals' behavior.
Which of the following statements regarding the nature of stress is correct?
A) Routine hassles may have significant negative effects on mental and physical health.
The notion that "stress lies in the eye of the beholder" suggests that
B) people's appraisals of stressful events are highly subjective.
_________ may be a common effect of environmental or ambient stress.
_______________ has been a major source of stress in many societies around the world.
B) Cultural change
Dealing with a rude store clerk and waiting for the results of an examination are two examples of
A) acute stressors.
You are a talented artist and good at mathematics. You enjoy both and don't know which to major in at college. Which of the following types of conflict applies to your situation?
________________ is any noticeable alteration in one's life circumstances.
C) Life change
New research on gender and the fight-or-flight response indicates that
B) fighting and fleeing may be less adaptive for females because both responses may endanger offspring.
Being followed when walking home late at night or narrowly escaping a car accident are experiences that would activate the
B) alarm reaction.
Which of the following was NOT cited in your text as a disruptive effect of severe stress on cognitive functioning?
C) Inability to deal with interpersonal issues
Which of the following appears to be a key factor in predicting who is most likely to develop PTSD following a traumatic event?
C) The intensity of the traumatic event
Psychosomatic disease ______ because of research on stress.
A) has fallen into disuse
The best description of social support is
C) various types of aid from one's social networks.
A behavior pattern marked by commitment, challenge, and control that appears to be related to stress resistance is called
In stressful circumstances, optimists are more likely than pessimists to
B) decline any offers of social support.
Which of the following statements about the use of coping strategies is NOT true?
D) The right coping strategy guarantees a successful outcome.
Whether someone develops learned helplessness under conditions of unavoidable aversive events most likely depends on
D) cognitive interpretation.
Withdrawal could be an adaptive response to stress under which of the following circumstances?
A) When one is not equipped to handle a situation
Which of the following was NOT found in frustration-aggression research?
C) Aggression leads to frustration as often as frustration leads to aggression.
The defense mechanism that involves suppressing unpleasant emotions or circumstances and refusing to acknowledge that they exist is referred to as
Constructive coping involves all of the following except
B) being less realistic in your appraisal of your coping resources.
According to Ellis, catastrophic thinking has its roots in
C) an irrational thought.
Finding humor in the situation is considered a(n) ______-focused strategy of constructive coping.
Susan was wiped out from her third chemotherapy treatment, yet when asked about how she was doing through all of this, she replied, "Now I am able to have a lot more compassion for my grandmother who went through this, too, and it has brought us closer together." Susan illustrates the use of ______________ as a coping strategy.
B) reaction formation
Which of the following is the best example of a clearly identified problem?
D) "I need to get a job."
Which of the following is NOT listed in your text as a cause of wasted time?
B) Inability to delay gratification
The first step in clarifying your goals is to
A) identify your lifetime goals.
Research suggests that forgiving is an effective __________-focused coping strategy.
The strength of the relationship between stress and health is
In the U.S., college students smoke __________ compared to the general population.
D) more for males and females
Researchers have found that in terms of their weight, adult adoptees tend to resemble their______ more than their ______.
B) biological parents; adoptive parents
Treatment with which of the following has recently been found to hold promise for substantially longer survival for AIDS victims?
D) Highly active antiretroviral therapy
Doctors and nurses often
A) believe their explanations are clear.
Which of the following drugs is considered a stimulant?
A particularly vocal critic of the medical model cited in the textbook is
A) Thomas Szasz.
Dr. Richards explained to his client that obsessive-compulsive disorder appears to be heavily influenced by biological causes. Dr. Richards is explaining the ________ of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
The DSM classification system is said to be "multiaxial." This means that the system
C) asks for judgments about individuals on a number of distinct dimensions.
Which of the following statements best reflects the relationship between stress and anxiety disorders?
D) Stress appears to exert its influence on the severity, rather than the onset, of anxiety disorders.
Compulsion is to "action" as obsession is to
Research suggests that ______ temperament in infants is a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders later in life.
B) an inhibited
Psychosomatic diseases involve
C) genuine physical ailments caused in part of psychological factors.
Which of the following personality types is most closely associated with the tendency to develop somatoform disorders?
Some theorists speculate that people with _____ are more susceptible to dissociative disorders.
) certain personality traits
B) fantasy proneness
C) a tendency to be absorbed in personal experiences
Suicide is the _____ leading cause of death in the U.S.
Which of the following statements regarding neurochemical and neuroanatomical factors in the development of mood disorders is accurate?
Depression has been correlated with reduced hippocampal volume.
The evidence available today suggests that there is ______ between stress and the onset of mood disorders.
a moderately strong link
Seventy-five percent of schizophrenic cases manifest
by 30 years of age.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding eating disorders?
About 10% of women develop anorexia nervosa or bulimia.