IT242

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Chapter1

By the 1970s, electronic crimes were increasing, especially in the financial sector.

True

To be a successful computer forensics investigator, you must be familiar with more than one computing platform.

True

Computer investigations and forensics fall into the same category: public investigations.

False

The law of search and seizure protects the rights of all people, excluding people suspected of crimes.

False

After a judge approves and signs a search warrant, it's ready to be executed, meaning you can collect evidence as defined by the warrant.

true

The FBI ______ was formed in 1984 to handle the increasing number of cases involving digital evidence.

computer analysis and response team (cart

_____ recovering information from a computer that was deleted by mistake or lost during a power surge or server crash.

Data recovery

____ involves preventing data loss by using backups, uninterrupted power supply (UPS) devices, and off-site monitoring

Disaster Recovery

The _______group manages investigations and conducts forensic analysis of systems suspected of containing evidence related to an incident or a crime.

computer investigations

By the early 1990s, the_____introduced training on software for forensics investigations.

IACIS

In the Pacific Northwest, _____ meets monthly to discuss problems that law enforcement and corporations face.

Computer Technology Investigators Network. (CTIN)

In a ____ case, a suspect is tried for a criminal offense, such as burglary, murder, or molestation.

criminal

In general, a criminal case follows three stages: the complaint, the investigation, and the _____.

prosecution

Based on the incident or crime, the complainant makes a(n)____, an accusation or supposition of fact that a crime has been committed.

allegation

In a criminal or public case, if you have enough information to support a search warrant, the prosecuting attorney might direct you to submit a(n) ____.

affidavit.

It's the investigator's responsibility to write the affidavit, which must include _____ (evidence) that support the allegation to justify the warrant.

exhibits

The affidavit must be ____ under sworn oath to verify that the information in the affidavit is true.

notarized

Published company policies provide a(n) ____ for a business to conduct internal investigations.

Line of authority

A _____ usually appears when a computer starts or connects to the company Internet, network, or virtual private network (VPN) and informs end users that the organization reserves the right to inspect computer systems and network traffic at will.

warning banner

A(n) ____ is a person using a computer to perform routine tasks other than systems administration.

end user

Without a warning banner, employees might have an assumed ____ when using a company's computer systems and network accesses

right of privacy

In addition to warning banners that state a company's rights of computer ownership, businesses should specify a(n) _____ requester who has the power to conduct investigations.

authorized

Most computer investigations in the private sector involve____.

misuse of computing assets.

Corporations often follow the ____ doctrine, which is what happens when a civilian or corporate investigative agent delivers evidence to a law enforcement officer.

silver-platter

Your _____ as a computer investigation and forensics analyst is critical because it determines your credibility.

professional conduct

Maintaining ___means you must form and sustain unbiased opinions of your cases.

objectivity

______ involves obtaining and analyzing digital information for use as evidence in civil, criminal, or administrative cases.

Computer Forensics

The______ to the U.S. Constitution (and each state's constitution) protects everyone's rights to be secure in their person, residence, and property from search and seizure.

Fourth Amendment

The term______ refers to large corporate computing systems that might include disparate or formerly independent systems.

enterprise network environment

When you work in the ______ group, you test and verify the integrity of standalone workstations and network servers.

vulnerability assessment and risk management

The _______ provides a record of clues to crimes that have been committed previously.

police blotter

The legal process of proving guilt or innocence in court

Litigation

recognizes file types and retrieves lost or deleted files

Xtree Gold

investigates data that can be retrieved from a computer's hard disk or other storage media

Computer Forensics

sworn statement of support of facts about or evidence of a crime that is submitted to a judge to request a search warrant before seizing evidence

affidavit

allows legal counsel to use previous cases similar to the current one because the laws don't yet exist

Case Law

specifies who has the legal right to initiate an investigation, who can take possession of evidence, and who can have access to evidence

Line of authority

organization that exchanges information about techniques related to computer investigations and security

HTCIA

yields information about how a perpetrator or an attacker gained access to a network

Network Forensics

involves selling sensitive or confidential company information to a competitor

Industrial espionage

Briefly describe the triad that makes up computer security.

Investigators often work as a team to make computers and networks secure in an organization. The computer investigations function is one of three in a triad that makes up computing security. In an enterprise network environment, the triad consists of the following parts:Vulnerability assessment and risk management ; Network intrusion detection and incident response; Computer investigations

Briefly describe the main characteristics of public investigations

Public investigations involve government agencies responsible for criminal investigations and prosecution. Government agencies range from local, county, and state or provincial police departments to federal regulatory enforcement agencies. These organizations must observe legal guidelines such as Article 8 in the Charter of Rights of Canada, the Criminal Procedures Act of the Republic of Namibia, and U.S. Fourth Amendment issues related to search and seizure rules.

Briefly describe the main characteristics of private investigations.

Private or corporate investigations deal with private companies, non-law-enforcement government agencies, and lawyers. These private organizations aren't governed directly by criminal law or Fourth Amendment issues, but by internal policies that define expected employee behavior and conduct in the workplace. Private corporate investigations also involve litigation disputes. Although private investigations are usually conducted in civil cases, a civil case can escalate into a criminal case, and a criminal case can be reduced to a civil case. If you follow good forensics procedures, the evidence found in your investigations can easily make the transition between civil and criminal cases

What questions should an investigator ask to determine whether a computer crime was committed?

In a criminal case, a suspect is tried for a criminal offense, such as burglary, murder, or molestation. To determine whether there was a computer crime, an investigator asks questions such as the following: What was the tool used to commit the crime? Was it a simple trespass? Was it a theft, a burglary, or vandalism? Did the perpetrator infringe on someone else's rights by cyberstalking or e-mail harassment?

What are the three levels of law enforcement expertise established by CTIN?

* Level 1—Acquiring and seizing digital evidence, normally performed by a street police officer.
* Level 2—Managing high-tech investigations, teaching investigators what to ask for, and understanding computer terminology and what can and can't be retrieved from digital evidence. The assigned detectives usually handle the case.
* Level 3—Specialist training in retrieving digital evidence, normally performed by a data recovery or computer forensics expert, network forensics expert, or Internet fraud investigator. This person might also be qualified to manage a case, depending on his or her background
46. What are some of the most common types of corporate computer crime?
Corporate computer crimes can involve e-mail harassment, falsification of data, gender and age discrimination, embezzlement, sabotage, and industrial espionage, which involves selling sensitive or confidential company information to a competitor. Anyone with access to a computer can commit these crimes

What are some of the most common types of corporate computer crime?

Corporate computer crimes can involve e-mail harassment, falsification of data, gender and age discrimination, embezzlement, sabotage, and industrial espionage, which involves selling sensitive or confidential company information to a competitor. Anyone with access to a computer can commit these crimes

What is embezzlement?

Embezzlement is a common computer crime, particularly in small firms. Typically, the owner is busy and trusts one person, such as the office manager, to handle daily transactions. When the office manager leaves, the owner discovers that some clients were overbilled or others were not billed at all, and money is missing. Rebuilding the paper and electronic trail can be tedious. Collecting enough evidence to press charges might be beyond the owner's capabilities.

Briefly describe corporate sabotage.

Corporate sabotage is most often committed by a disgruntled employee. The employee decides to take a job at a competitor's firm and collects critical files on a disk or thumb drive before leaving. This type of crime can also lead to industrial espionage, which increases every year.

What text can be used in internal warning banners?

Depending on the type of organization, the following text can be used in internal warning banners:
* Access to this system and network is restricted.
* Use of this system and network is for official business only.
* Systems and networks are subject to monitoring at any time by the owner.
* Using this system implies consent to monitoring by the owner.
* Unauthorized or illegal users of this system or network will be subject to discipline or prosecution

Mention examples of groups that should have direct authority to request computer investigations in the corporate environment.

* Corporate Security Investigations
* Corporate Ethics Office
* Corporate Equal Employment Opportunity Office
* Internal Auditing
* The general counsel or Legal Departments

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