A DNA is made up of _____ which make up ____ which make up sentences (fill in the blanks)
Letters and Words
How is a protein like a car engine?
Each part looks and is different and all do separate jobs to make it work
How many chromosomes does a child receive from its mother? How about father?
23 from his father and 23 from his mother
What is the base pair rule? Which bases pair with which bases?
Adenine pairs with thymine while cytosine pairs with guanine
What is translation?
When the ribosome reads the mRNA sequence and translates it into the amino acid sequence of the protein
Fireflies glow to attract a ____ and to avoid ____ (fill in the blanks)
Fireflies glow to attract a mate and avoid predators.
What must the string of amino acids be in order to become a functioning luciferase enzyme?
Bend and fold into a specific three dimensional shape
Explain a hybrid
Usually bigger and better and are stronger than their parents. Sometimes bred for certain traits.
List four qualities in a plant that scientists selectively breed for plants
1) plants with seeds that produce
2) plants with the largest head of grain
3) plants with the juiciest berries
4) plants with the most disease resistant
What is the danger of inbreeding?
That the two closely related indivuals will carry a harmful recessive allele
What is genetic engineering?
A faster and more reliable method for increasing the frequency of a specific allele in a population
What method does genetic engineering involve?
Cleaving DNA from one organism into small fragments and inserting the fragments into a host organism of the same or different species
What are restriction enzymes and what do they do?
Bacterial proteins that have the ability to cut both strands of the DNA molecule at a specific nucleotide sequence
What is a vector?
When DNA from another species can be carried into the host cell - They may be biological or mechanical
What is recombinant DNA technology?
made by connecting or re connecting fragments of DNA from different sources - recombinant DNA is inserted into a host organism's chromosomes and that organism will use this foreign DNA as if it were its own
What are the three steps in the process of making recombinant DNA?
1) Isolate foreign DNA fragments that will be inserted
2) Attach the DNA fragment to a carrier
3) Transfer into the host organism
Are restriction enzymes very specific to where they cleave DNA?
Yes because they can't just cut between any two bases of DNA. If that happened then one persons DNA would be exactly the same as someone elses
What is the purpose of agarose gel?
It acts as a molecular strainer allowing smaller pieces of DNA to move through and move faster than larger pieces
How does size affect the movement of DNA fragments?
The smaller fragments move faster and more easily while the longer fragments move slower and not as easily
What is the purpose of placing the X-RAY film on top of the nylon membrane?
The probes will expose corresponding areas from the nylon membrane on the X-RAY film
What is a plasmid?
A ring like genetic material or structure that is made of DNA and acts as a vector that will carry the human insulin gene and transfer it into the bacteria cell
How does recombinant DNA play a rule in the production of human insulin by bacteria?
By replicating the bacteria cells which replicates the insulin gene and expresses the human insulin by translating and transcribing the human insulin protein hormone
What happens when you cut DNA and bacteria with the same restriction enzyme?
The base pairs will match up
What happens when you cut DNA and bacteria with a different restriction enzyme?
The base pairs don't match up
What does the power source do in Gel Electrophoresis?
It turns on a current or charge that allows smaller pieces to fall through
What are some treatments from the products of recombinant DNA?
Treatments for diabetes, growth defects, burns and ulcers, cancer, improving weight gain in cattle, breaking down of cellulose for animal feeds, ovarian cancer, viral infections, viral hepatitis, anemia, hemophilia and heart attacks
What are sticky ends in the process of cutting the DNA with restriction enzymes?
Free parts that match with other bases
How has diabetes been treated throughout history?
With a very strict diet that was low in calories and carbohydrates
What is artificial selection?
Where a person takes two organism and forces them to mate for a certain result - man made organism
What is mitotic cell division?
A division resulting in an exact cell copy that copies over and over again
For what purpose is gel electrophoresis used?
To create a unique fingerprint and identify an individual