Genetic Engineering

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Biology course in learning what genetic engineering is

What is DNA?

A set of plans for building different parts of a cell

What does DNA stand for?

Deoxyribonucleic acid

Why is DNA called a blueprint?

Because it's like plans to build something

What is the twisted ladder shape of the DNA molecule called?

Double helix

Name the four bases found in DNA

Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine and Guanine

A DNA is made up of _____ which make up ____ which make up sentences (fill in the blanks)

Letters and Words

What are these sentences called?

Genes

What is a gene?

Instruction mannuals that are directions for building proteins

What is the protein that blood cells use?

Hemoglobin

How many chromosomes are in a human?

46 or 23 pairs

How many chromosomes are in a mosquito?

6 or 3 pairs

How many chromosomes are in a carp?

104 or 52 pairs

How is a protein like a car engine?

Each part looks and is different and all do separate jobs to make it work

What are receptor proteins responsible for picking up?

The signal and passing it

What does each gene in DNA encode information for making?

Individual protein

Once in the cytoplasm, the ____ reads the message (fill in the blank)

Ribsosome

What is heredity?

The passing of traits from parent to child

How many chromosomes does a child receive from its mother? How about father?

23 from his father and 23 from his mother

What is a zygote?

When a sperm and egg cell join and create a single cell

Each child inherits a ____ set of chromosomes (fill in the blank)

23

Give three examples of physical traits

Hair color, eye color and height

A dog catching a bone is an example of what kind of trait?

Behavioral traits

What is an allele?

The set of information from each form of a trait

What is the base pair rule? Which bases pair with which bases?

Adenine pairs with thymine while cytosine pairs with guanine

What is transcription?

Copying the gene sequence into messenger RNA

What is translation?

When the ribosome reads the mRNA sequence and translates it into the amino acid sequence of the protein

Fireflies glow to attract a ____ and to avoid ____ (fill in the blanks)

Fireflies glow to attract a mate and avoid predators.

What gene does RNA polymerase attract to?

LUC gene

When transcription is complete, the LUC gene and mRNA moves to where?

Cytoplasm

The ribosome interprets the mRNA to produce a string of ____? (fill in the blank)

Amino Acids

What must the string of amino acids be in order to become a functioning luciferase enzyme?

Bend and fold into a specific three dimensional shape

What do the enzymes bind to in order to create light?

A chemical called luciferin

Explain a hybrid

Usually bigger and better and are stronger than their parents. Sometimes bred for certain traits.

When a gene is changed it is said to be ____? (fill in the blank)

Mutated

A mutation in the hemoglobin gene can cause what disorder?

Sickle cell anemia

If you stretched DNA from a cell out, how long would it be?

Three meters

List four qualities in a plant that scientists selectively breed for plants

1) plants with seeds that produce
2) plants with the largest head of grain
3) plants with the juiciest berries
4) plants with the most disease resistant

What did our ancestors increase the frequency of?

Desired alleles within a population

What is inbreeding?

The mating between closely related individuals

What does inbreeding result in?

Offspring that are homozygous for most traits

What is the danger of inbreeding?

That the two closely related indivuals will carry a harmful recessive allele

What is genetic engineering?

A faster and more reliable method for increasing the frequency of a specific allele in a population

What method does genetic engineering involve?

Cleaving DNA from one organism into small fragments and inserting the fragments into a host organism of the same or different species

What are restriction enzymes and what do they do?

Bacterial proteins that have the ability to cut both strands of the DNA molecule at a specific nucleotide sequence

What is a vector?

When DNA from another species can be carried into the host cell - They may be biological or mechanical

What is recombinant DNA technology?

made by connecting or re connecting fragments of DNA from different sources - recombinant DNA is inserted into a host organism's chromosomes and that organism will use this foreign DNA as if it were its own

Where does functional DNA come from?

Plants and animals - referred to as transgenic organisms

What are the three steps in the process of making recombinant DNA?

1) Isolate foreign DNA fragments that will be inserted
2) Attach the DNA fragment to a carrier
3) Transfer into the host organism

Are restriction enzymes very specific to where they cleave DNA?

Yes because they can't just cut between any two bases of DNA. If that happened then one persons DNA would be exactly the same as someone elses

What is the purpose of agarose gel?

It acts as a molecular strainer allowing smaller pieces of DNA to move through and move faster than larger pieces

What is gel electrophoresis?

The process of moving molecules within an electric cuttent

How does size affect the movement of DNA fragments?

The smaller fragments move faster and more easily while the longer fragments move slower and not as easily

What is the purpose of the nylon membrane?

Suck up the DNA as a liquid

What is the purpose of placing the X-RAY film on top of the nylon membrane?

The probes will expose corresponding areas from the nylon membrane on the X-RAY film

What is a plasmid?

A ring like genetic material or structure that is made of DNA and acts as a vector that will carry the human insulin gene and transfer it into the bacteria cell

How does recombinant DNA play a rule in the production of human insulin by bacteria?

By replicating the bacteria cells which replicates the insulin gene and expresses the human insulin by translating and transcribing the human insulin protein hormone

What happens when you cut DNA and bacteria with the same restriction enzyme?

The base pairs will match up

What happens when you cut DNA and bacteria with a different restriction enzyme?

The base pairs don't match up

What is ecoli?

A bacteria found in food

What holds the DNA and bacteria pieces together?

Hydrogen bonds

What does the power source do in Gel Electrophoresis?

It turns on a current or charge that allows smaller pieces to fall through

What are some treatments from the products of recombinant DNA?

Treatments for diabetes, growth defects, burns and ulcers, cancer, improving weight gain in cattle, breaking down of cellulose for animal feeds, ovarian cancer, viral infections, viral hepatitis, anemia, hemophilia and heart attacks

What are sticky ends in the process of cutting the DNA with restriction enzymes?

Free parts that match with other bases

How has diabetes been treated throughout history?

With a very strict diet that was low in calories and carbohydrates

How is diabetes treated today?

With recombinant DNA technology

What is artificial selection?

Where a person takes two organism and forces them to mate for a certain result - man made organism

What is grafting?

Taking a plant or pieces from a plant and growing it somewhere else

What is regeneration?

Regrowth of DNA or a body part (ex: Starfish)

What is natural selection?

Organisms who choose themselves to whom the want to mate with

What is mitotic cell division?

A division resulting in an exact cell copy that copies over and over again

What is DNA extraction?

When DNA is taken or extracted out of the nucleus in the cell

For what purpose is gel electrophoresis used?

To create a unique fingerprint and identify an individual

What is a benefit of inbreeding?

Your result of an organism is exactly what you want

What is a drawback of inbreeding?

If there are two recessive genes then there could be a possible mutation

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