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Mayflower Compact

This document was drafted in 1620 prior to settlement by the Pilgrims at Plymouth Bay in Massachusetts. It declared that the 41 males who signed it agreed to accept majority rule and participate in a government in the best interest of all members of the colony. This agreement set the precedent for later documents outlining commonwealth rule.

William Bradford

A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.

Pilgrims and Puritans contrasted

The Pilgrims were separatists who believed that the Church of England could not be reformed. Separatist groups were illegal in England, so the Pilgrims fled to America and settled in Plymouth. The Puritans were non-separatists who wished to adopt reforms to purify the Church of England. They received a right to settle in the Massachusetts Bay area from the King of England.

Massachusetts Bay Colony

1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government.

Cambridge Agreement

1629 - The Puritan stockholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company agreed to emigrate to New England on the condition that they would have control of the government of the colony.

Puritan migration

Many Puritans emigrated from England to America in the 1630s and 1640s. During this time, the population of the Massachusetts Bay colony grew to ten times its earlier population.

Church of England

Church created in England as a result of a political dispute between Henry VIII and the Pope, Pope would not let Henry divorce his wife

John Winthrop

John Winthrop immigrated from the Mass. Bay Colony in the 1630's to become the first governor and to led a religious experiment. He once said, "we shall be a city on a hill."

Separatists

Pilgrims that started out in Holland in the 1620's who traveled over the Atlantic Ocean on the Mayflower. These were the purest, most extreme Pilgrims existing, claiming that they were too strong to be discouraged by minor problems as others were.

Congregational Church

A church grown out of the Puritan church, was established in all New England colonies but Rhode Island. It was based on the belief that individual churches should govern themselves

Contrast Puritan colonies with others

Puritan colonies were self-governed, with each town having its own government which led the people in strict accordance with Puritan beliefs. Only those members of the congregation who had achieved grace and were full church members (called the "elect," or "saints") could vote and hold public office. Other colonies had different styles of government and were more open to different beliefs.

Anne Hutchinson

She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.

Roger Williams

A dissenter, Roger Williams clashed with Massachusetts Puritans over the issue of separation of church and state. After being banished from Massachusetts in 1636, he traveled south, where he founded the colony of Rhode Island, which granted full religious freedom to its inhabitants.

Half-way covenant

A Puritan church document; In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.

Thomas Hooker

A Puritan minister who led about 100 settlers out of Massachusetts Bay to Connecticut because he believed that the governor and other officials had too much power. He wanted to set up a colony in Connecticut with strict limits on government.

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

This document was the first written constitution in the American colonies. It was prepared as the covenant for the new Puritan community in Connecticut, established in the 1630s. This document described a system of government for the new community.

Saybrook Platform

organized town churches into county associations that sent delegates to annual assembly which governed the colony of Connecticut

Leif Ericsson

late 900's early 1000's son of Eric the Red; sailed to North America in about 1000 and explored what is today know as Newfoundland

Bartholomew Dias

Dias was an early Portuguese explorer who traveled down the coast of Africa in search of a water route to Asia. He managed to round the southern tip of Africa in 1488, now the Cape of Good Hope.

Amerigo Vespucci

italian cartographer that sailed under the Spanish flag repeated Columbus' initial attemp to sail west to Asia; he explored the coast of Africa thinking that it was Asia; he made his next voyage commissioned by Portugal and sailed along the coast of S America concluding that it could not be Asia; his discoveries were published and the new continent was named after him

Ponce de Leon

Spanish explorer who led the first expedition to Florida.

Vasco Nunez de Balboa

Spanish explorer who became the first European to see the Pacific Ocean in 1510 while exploring Panama

Hernando Cortez

A brash and determined Spanish adventurer, Hernando Cortez crossed the Hispaniola to mainland Mexico with six hundred men, seventeen horses and ten canons. Within three years, Cortez had taken captive the Aztec emperor Montezuma, conquered the rich Aztec empire and found Mexico City as the capital of New Spain. (p.508-510)

Ferdinand Magellan

Portuguese-born navigator. Hired by Spain to sail to the Indies in 1519. (The same year HRE Charles V became empreor.) Magellan was killed in the Philippines (1521). One of his ships returned to Spain (1522), thereby completing the first circumnavigation of the globe.

Francisco Pizzaro

He was from Portugal he went to Peru in 1532; he crushed Incas; took lot of money

Hernando de Soto

1539-1542 Explored Gulf coast from Florida to Mississippi River.

Giovanni de Verrazano

1524 Explored coast from Carolina to Nova Scotia, entered New York Harbor and Narragansett Bay.

Francisco Vasquez de Coronado

1540-1542 Discovered the Grand Canyon of Arizona, the Panhandle areas Texas and Kansas

Jacques Carter

1534 Explored the St. Lawrence Gulf and River to Montreal

Samuel de Champlain

up St. Lawrence, discovered Indians, established fur trade with the Indians.

Pere Marquette & Louis Joliet

France 1673 Explored Mackinac Strait, Lake Michigan, Green Bay, Wisconsin River, and Mississippi River to the Aransas River

Robert, Sieur de LaSalle

France 1682 Went from Great lakes to the Miss. River and down to its mouth.

John Cabot

England 1497, 1498 Sailed along the coast from Newfound to Maine, sailed from Newfoundland to Cheseapeake

Sebastian Cabot

England 1498 Explored NE Coast

Sir Francis Drake

England 1509 Second circumnavigation of the worlds

Henry Hudson

Netherlands 1609-1611 Explored the Hudson River and the Hudson bay

New England Confederation

1643 - Formed to provide for the defense of the four New England colonies, and also acted as a court in disputes between colonies.

King Philip's War

1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.

Dominion of New England

1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros

Sir Edmund Andros

Governor of the Dominion of New England from 1686 until 1692, when the colonists rebelled and forced him to return to England

Joint Stock Company

A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.

Virginia colony

This colony got a charter, or right to organize a settlement in 1606. Jamestown was the first town in this new colony.

Headright system

Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.

John Smith

Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.

John Rolfe

He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.

House of Burgesses

the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts.

Bacon's Rebellion

an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. It was the first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part; a similar uprising in Maryland occurred later that year. The uprising was a protest against the governor of Virginia, William Berkeley.

Culperer's Rebellion

Led by Culperer, the Alpemark colony rebelled against its English governor, Thomas Miller. The rebellion was crushed, but Culperer was acquitted.

Georgia

Founded in 1733 at Savannah by James Ogelithorpe for human rehabilitation, initially proprietary.

James Oglethorpe

Founder of Georgia

Carolinas

1665 - Charles II granted this land to pay off a debt to some supporters. They instituted headrights and a representative government to attract colonists. The southern region of the Carolinas grew rich off its ties to the sugar islands, while the poorer northern region was composed mainly of farmers. The conflicts between the regions eventually led to the colony being split into North and South Carolina.

John Locke

English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.

Charleston

1690 - The first permanent settlement in the Carolinas, named in honor of King Charles II. Much of the population were Huguenot (French Protestant) refugees.

Staple crops in the South

Tobacco was grown in Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina. Rice was grown in South Carolina and Georgia. Indigo was grown in South Carolina.

Pennsylvania

in 1681, Charles II awarded the land of PA to William Penn, in order to pay off a debt to his father. He established Pennsylvania as a refuge for Quakers

Liberal land laws in Pennsylvania

William Penn allowed anyone to emigrate to Pennsylvania, in order to provide a haven for persecuted religions.

Holy experiment

William Penn's term for the government of Pennsylvania, which was supposed to serve everyone and provide freedom for all.

New York

Founded in 1624 at Albany and New Amsterdam by the Dutch, taken by Duke of York.

Peter Stuyvesant

The governor of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, hated by the colonists. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664.

Crops in Middle Colonies

The middle colonies produced staple crops, primarily grain and corn.

New York and Philadelphia as urban centers

New York became an important urban center due to its harbor and rivers, which made it an important center for trade. Piladelphia was a center for trade and crafts, and attracted a large number of immigrants, so that by 1720 it had a population of 10,000. It was the capital of Pennsylvania from 1683-1799. As urban centers, both cities played a major role in American Independence.

John Bartram

an early American botanist and horticulturalist. Carolus Linnaeus said he was the "greatest natural botanist in the world."

Great Awakening

Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.

Jonathan Edwards

American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated a period of renewed interest in religion in America (1703-1758)

George Whitefield

succeeded John Wesley as leader of Calvinist Methodists in Oxford, England, major force in revivalism in England and America, journey to colonies sparked Great Awakening

William Tennant

A strong Presbyterian minister and leader during the Great Awakening. Founded a college for the training of Presbyterian ministers in 1726.

Gilbert Tennant

An American Presbyterian minister who delivered a sermon in 1740, "The Dangers of Unconverted Ministry", in which he criticized conservative ministers who opposed the fervor of the Great Awakening. This resulted in a schism in the Presbyterian church in 1741, between the "Old Lights, and the "New Lights" (Led by Tennant).

Lord Baltimore

1634- He was the founder of Maryland, a colony which offered religious freedom, and a refuge for the persecuted Roman Catholics.

Maryland Act of Toleration

1649 - Ordered by Lord Baltimore after a Protestant was made governor of Maryland at the demand of the colony's large Protestant population. The act guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians.

Mercantilism

an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought

Navigation Acts

Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.

Admiralty Courts

British courts originally established to try cases involving smuggling or violations of the Navigation Acts which the British government sometimes used to try American criminals in the colonies. Trials in Admiralty Courts were heard by judges without a jury.

Triangular Trade

A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Aferica sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa

Molasses Act

A British law passed in 1733 to change a trade pattern in the American colonies by taxing molasses imported into colonies not ruled by Britain. Americans responded to this attempt to damage their international trade by bribing and smuggling. Their protest of this and other laws led to revolution.

Woolens Act

Law allowed no finished fur products to be made in America. (bad)

Currency Act

restricted colonists from printing their own currency and instead using "hard" currency (gold and silver)

Poor Richard's Almanac

1732-1758 containing many sayings called from thinkers of the ages emphasizing such home spun virtues as thrift industry morality and common sense Frankin wrote it

Phillis Wheatley

American poet (born in Africa) who was the first recognized Black writer in America (1753-1784)

Ann Bradstreet

A Puritan and the first colonial poet to be published. The main subjects of her poetry were family, home, and religion.

Petition of Right

Document prepared by Parliament and signed by King Charles I of England in 1628; challenged the idea of the divine right of kings and declared that even the monarch was subject to the laws of the land

Habeaus Corpus Act

: Latin meaning: "to have a body" gave every prisoner the right to obtain and writ or document ordering that the prisoner be brought before a judge to specify the changes against the prisoner.

Board of Trade

commissioned by King William III of England to supervise commerce, recommend appointments of colonial officials, and review colonial laws to see that none interfered with trade or conflicted with the laws of England

Robert Walpole

Prime minister of Great Britain in the first half of the 1700s. His position towards the colonies was salutary neglect.

Salutary Neglect

british colonial policy during the reigns of George I and George II. relaxed supervision of internal colonial affairs by royal bureacrats contributed significantly to the rise of American self government

Town meetings

A purely democratic form of government common in the colonies, and the most prevalent form of local government in New England. In general, the town's voting population would meet once a year to elect officers, levy taxes, and pass laws.

Zenger trial

This 1735 trial of a New York newspaper editor for criticising a British-appointed governor. It resulted in a not guilty verdict, since the articles were based on fact, not slander. This acquittal was the first important victory for freedom of the press in the colonies. Andrew Hamilton, a well-known Philadelphia lawyer, represented the defendant at no charge.

Difference between French and British colonization

The British settled mainly along the coast, where they started farms, towns, and governments. As a general rule, whole families emigrated. The British colonies had little interaction with the local Indians (aside from occasional fighting). The French colonized the interior, where they controlled the fur trade. Most of the French immigrants were single men, and there were few towns and only loose governmental authority. The French lived closely with the Indians, trading with them for furs and sometimes taking Indian wives.

Queen Anne's War

The second of the four wars known generally as the French and Indian Wars, it arose out of issues left unresolved by King Williams' War (1689-1697) and was part of a larger European conflict known as the War of the Spanish Succession. Britain, allied with the Netherlands, defeated France and Spain to gain territory in Canada, even though the British had suffered defeats in most of their military operations in North America.

Peace of Utrecht

Ended Queen Anne's War. Undermined France's power in North America by giving Britain the Hudson Bay, Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia.

War of Jenkin's Ear

It began because of Spanish atrocities to British merchants in the West Indies

King George's War

1744 and 1748. England and Spain were in conflict with French. New England captured French Bastion at Louisburg on Cape Brenton Island. Had to abandon it once peace treaty ended conflict.

French and Indian War

Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.

Albany Plan of Union

plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown

General Braddock

British commander in the French and Indian War. He was killed in the Battle of Fallen Timbers.

Fort Duquesne

French fort that was site of first major battle of French and Indian War; General Washington led unsuccessful attack on French troops and was then defeated at Fort Necessity, marking beginning of conflict.

Wolfe

British Commander General ________and his soldiers won the deciding battle of the french and indian war by scaling the cliffs that surrounded Quebec, Canada.

Montcalm

Military officer at Quebec City.

Treaty of Paris, 1763

Ended French and Indian War, France lost Canada, land east of the Mississippi, to British, New Orleans and west of Mississippi to Spain

Pontiac's Rebellion

a 1763 conflict between Native Americans and the British over settlement of Indian lands in the Great Lakes area

Writs of Assistance

It was part of the Townshend Acts. It said that the customs officers could inspect a ship's cargo without giving a reason. Colonists protested that the Writs violated their rights as British citizens.

James Otis

A colonial lawyer who defended (usually for free) colonial merchants who were accused of smuggling. Argued against the writs of assistance and the Stamp Act.

Paxton Boys

They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.

Navigation Acts

Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.

Grenville

Britich treasurer, wanted to inforce Navigation Laws, said if the laws were ignored the colonist's trial would be in England without their peirs (ignored rights of Englishmen)

Sugar Act

Law passed in 1764 that modified the 1733 Molasses Act thus reducing the amount of taxes collected on molasses and sugar, but increasing the measures to enforce the Act

Non-importation

the act of not importing or using certain goods

Stamp Act

March 22, 1765 - British legislation passed as part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue measures which required that all legal or official documents used in the colonies, such as wills, deeds and contracts, had to be written on special, stamped British paper. It was so unpopular in the colonies that it caused riots, and most of the stamped paper sent to the colonies from Britain was burned by angry mobs. Because of this opposition, and the decline in British imports caused by the non- importation movement, London merchants convinced Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act in 1766.

Virginia Resolves

In response to the 1765 Stamp Act, Patrick Henry persuaded the Virginia House of Burgesses to adopt several strongly worded resolutions that denied Parliament's right to tax the colonies. Known as the Virginia Resolves, these resolutions persuaded many other colonial legislatures to adopt similar positions.

Stamp Act Congress

A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.

Patrick Henry

a leader of the American Revolution and a famous orator who spoke out against British rule of the American colonies (1736-1799)

Sons of Liberty

A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.

Internal taxes

Taxes which arose out of activities that occurred "internally" within the colonies. The Stamp Act was considered an internal tax, because it taxed the colonists on legal transactions they undertook locally. Many colonists and Englishmen felt that Parliament did not have the authority to levy internal taxes on the colonies.

External taxes

Taxes arose out of activities that originated outside of the colonies, such as cusotms duties. The Sugar Act was considered an external tax, because it only operated on goods imported into the colonies from overseas. Many colonists who objected to Parliament's "internal" taxes on the colonies felt that Parliament had the authority to levy external taxes on imported goods.

Declaratory Act

Passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act, the Declaratory Act stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases. Most colonists interpreted the act as a face-saving mechanism and nothing more. Parliament, however, continually interpreted the act in its broadest sense in order to legislate in and control the colonies.

Quartering Act

March 24, 1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.

Townshend Acts

A tax that the British Parliament placed on leads, glass, paint and tea

John Dickinson

Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts. Although an outspoken critic of British policies towards the colonies, Dickinson opposed the Revolution, and, as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776, refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.

Massachusetts Circular Letter

A letter written in Boston and circulated through the colonies in February, 1768, which urged the colonies not to import goods taxed by the Townshend Acts. Boston, New York, and Philadelphia agreed to non-importation. It was followed by the Virginia Circular Letter in May, 1768. Parliament ordered all colonial legislatures which did not rescind the circular letters dissolved.

The Association

A document produced by the Continental Congress in 1775 that called for a complete boycott of British goods. This included non-importation, non-exportation and non-consumption. It was the closest approach to a written constitution yet from the colonies. It was hoped to bring back the days before Parliamentary taxation. Those who violated The Association in America were tarred and feathered

Boston Massacre

a riot in Boston (March 5, 1770) arising from the resentment of Boston colonists toward British troops quartered in the city, in which the troops fired on the mob and killed several persons.

Crispus Attucks

A free black man who was the first person killed in the Revolution at the Boston Massacre.

Carolina Regulators

Western frontiersmen who in 1768 rebelled in protest against the high taxes imposed by the Eastern colonial government of North Carolina, and whose organization was crushed by military force by Governor Tryon in 1771. In South Carolina, groups of vigilantes who organized to fignt outlaw bands along the Western frontier in 1767-1769, and who disbanded when regular courts were established in those areas.

Battle of the Alamance

May 1771 - An army recruited by the North Carolina government put down the rebellion of the Carolina Regulators at Alamance Creek. The leaders of the Regulators were executed.

Gaspee incident

A schooner was beached in Providence, RI, This upset Americans because it was one of the last of the customs racketeering ships. It was burned down by local inhabitants. It greatly angered the British and showed how militant the colonials were becoming.

Governor Thomas Hutchinson

Governor of Massachusets; hates and is afraid of The Sons of Liberty; allows the militarty to maintain a strong presence in Boston

Committees of Correspondence

Organization founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies

Lord North

Prime Minister of England from 1770 to 1782. Although he repealed the Townshend Acts, he generally went along with King George III's repressive policies towards the colonies even though he personally considered them wrong. He hoped for an early peace during the Revolutionary War and resigned after Cornwallis' surrender in 1781.

Tea Act

Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants; led to the Boston Tea Party

Boston Tea Party

demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor

Coercive Acts

This series of laws were very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soilders in their own homes.

Quebec Act

designed to facilitate the incorporation of French Canadians into British America; Colonists feared a precedent had been established in the nonrepresentative government in Quebec; they resented the expansion of Quebec's territory, which they had been denied access by the Proclamation of 1763; they were offended by the Crown's recognition of Catholicism, since most Americans were Protestants

First Continental Congress

The First Continental Congress convened on September 5, 1774, to protest the Intolerable Acts. The congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, voted for a boycott of British imports, and sent a petition to King George III, conceding to Parliament the power of regulation of commerce but stringently objecting to its arbitrary taxation and unfair judicial system.

Suffolk Resolves

declared colonial resistance to Coercive acts and announced preparations for a military defense against British tyranny. Most famous of many meetings vigorously protesting the Intolerable Acts enacted by the British Parliament the same year. Decided they would boycott British goods, ignore punitive measures, support colonial government, and urge colonies to raise militias.

Galloway Plan

1774 proposed the formation of a colonial union under a royally appointed president-general and popularly elected council. this colonial union would be able to pass laws subject to the approval of the the president-general and parliament. this plan was rejected by the continental congress

Lexington and Concord

first "battles"; meant to get suppies from militia, but shots exchanged between minutemen and the british as the british continued to concord; Americans ambushed british, killing 300

Valley Forge

Washington retreated to this place in Pennsylvania for the winter after the Battle of Trenton

Second Continental Congress

They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence

Battle of Bunker Hill

First major battle of the Revolutions. It showed that the Americans could hold their own, but the British were also not easy to defeat. Ultimately, the Americans were forced to withdraw after running out of ammunition, and Bunker Hill was in British hands. However, the British suffered more deaths.

Olive Branch Petition

On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.

Common Sense

a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain

Second Treatise on Government

a work written by John Locke before the Glorious Revolution that was read as justification for it. Locke described the relationship of a king and his people as a bilateral contract. If the king broke the contract, the people, by whom Locke meant the privileged and the powerful, had the right to depose him. The Glorious Revolution established a framework of government by and for the governemed that seemed to bear ou the arguments of this book

Richard Henry Lee

Member of the Second Continental Congress who urged Congress to support independence; signer of the Declaration of Independence.

Edmund Burke

A conservative leader who was deeply troubled by the aroused spirit of reform. In 1790, he published Reforms on The Revolution in France, one of the greatest intellectual defenses of European conservatism. He defended inherited priveledges in general and those of the English monarchy and aristocracy. Glorified unrepresentitive Parliament and predicted reform would lead to much chaos/tyranny.

George Rogers Clark

Leader of a small Patriot force that captured British-controlled Fort Vincennes in the Ohio Valley in 1779., secured the Northwest Territory for America

Benedict Arnold

He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental Army. He won key victories for the colonies in the battles in upstate New York in 1777, and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in 1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission in the royal army. He is the most famous traitor in American history.

Robert Morris

A financer of the revolution. First Treasurer of the U.S. Signed the Constitution and the Dec. of Indep.

John Paul Jones

Patriot naval leader who commanded the American ship Bonhomme Richard, which defeated the British ship Serapis in 1779.

French Alliance of 1778

France aided the U.S. in the American Revolution, and the U.S. agreed to aid France if the need ever arose. Although France could have used American aid during the French Revolution, the U.S. didn't do anything to help. The U.S. didn't fulfill their part of the agreement until World War I.

Battle at Saratoga

battle that colonist won that proved to the French that they were ready for their alliance, morale boost

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