Chapter 1

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Heart disease deaths have fallen substantially and the number of overweight people has declined based on evaluation of the nation's progress toward achieving national health objectives.

a. True
b. False

b

Cultural traditions regarding food are static and inflexible.

a. True
b. False

b

Much of the nutrition information found on the Internet is fiction.

a. True
b. False

a

Which of the following conditions is the most nutrition responsive?

a. hypertension
b. diabetes
c. iron-deficiency anemia
d. sickle-cell anemia

c

Of the 10 leading causes of death in the United States, _____ are related to nutrition, and 1 to alcohol consumption.

a. 2
b. 3
c. 4
d. 5

c

The development of chronic diseases has a connection to poor diet and:

a. can be completely prevented by eating a good diet.
b. will not be affected by lifestyle choices.
c. is not affected by genetics.
d. can be reduced by food choices along with lifestyle choices.

d

Effects of physical activity on the body include all of the following except:

a. decreased bone density.
b. reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases.
c. faster wound healing.
d. increased lean body tissue.

a

The nutrients fall into _____ classes.

a. two
b. four
c. six
d. eight

c

The energy-yielding nutrients include:

a. protein.
b. fat.
c. vitamins.
d. a and b
e. a and c

d

In nutrition, the word essential means:

a. necessary for good health and proper functioning of the body.
b. a necessary nutrient that can be obtained only from the diet.
c. that the body can manufacture the nutrient from raw materials.
d. compounds the body can make for itself.

b

The most energy-rich of the nutrients is:

a. carbohydrate.
b. fat.
c. protein.
d. water.

b

Data from a national survey showed that on a given day two-thirds of our population consume inadequate:

a. fruits.
b. vegetables.
c. grains.
d. meat.

a

One of the characteristics of a nutritious diet is that the foods provide enough of each essential nutrient, fiber, and energy. This principle of diet planning is called:

a. variety.
b. balance.
c. moderation.
d. adequacy.

d

Many factors influence food choices by individuals. Among these are:

a. cultural traditions, which are inflexible and cannot be changed.
b. the convenience of meals that require little or no preparation.
c. the emotional comfort provided by foods with high nutrient content.
d. expense, since foods that cost more are always more nutritious.

b

The most difficult obstacle to changing behavior is:

a. competence, because it is difficult to obtain new knowledge.
b. motivation, because it is difficult to change.
c. confidence, because it cannot be improved.
d. self-efficacy, because people don't believe in their ability to take action.

b

Your food intake on a daily basis affects your health because:

a. you must eat adequate amounts of every nutrient daily to stay healthy.
b. improper balance of nutrients over time can lead to chronic diseases in the future.
c. malnutrition is a result of not eating enough foods.
d. overeating will result in very quickly developing a chronic disease.

b

When considering the effect of genetics and nutrition on chronic disease development in individuals:

a. we need to understand that all individuals have the same genetic makeup.
b. sound nutrition practices have the greatest influence on prevention of all chronic diseases.
c. our genetic inheritance determines the influence nutrition will have on disease prevention.
d. scientists have recently been able to identify all the genetic connections to chronic disease.

c

Your best friend tells you that she has started taking vitamin supplements to give her energy. How would you respond to her statement?

a. Vitamins are organic and are a great energy source.
b. Vitamins provide energy because they undergo oxidation.
c. Vitamins do not yield usable energy.
d. a and b
e. b and c

c

Liquid formulas that have been introduced as "meal replacers" have been shown to:

a. be an effective way for people to supplement their diets if they are not eating adequately.
b. help support growth and health without medical complications in severely ill patients.
c. be better than a diet of real foods for many people because of their food choices.
d. have a limited use that is lifesaving for hospitalized patients who cannot eat real foods.

d

Phytochemicals found in foods are important because:

a. they increase the risk of developing certain diseases when they are eaten.
b. they decrease the risk of developing certain diseases when they are eaten.
c. they are considered to be essential nutrients.
d. they are a new category of vitamins.

b

You purchase a food product that is enriched. This means that:

a. the product is superior to similar products.
b. the product is low in calories and high in nutrients.
c. the product could be either nutritious or not nutritious.
d. a and b

c

Most foods that are high in calcium are poor sources of iron. This statement illustrates the importance of the characteristic of a nutritious diet known as:

a. adequacy.
b. variety.
c. moderation.
d. balance.

d

Harry has a monotonous diet and eats the same foods every day. You try to convince him to eat a variety of foods because:

a. some less well-known nutrients and some nonnutrient food components could be important to health.
b. a monotonous diet may deliver large amounts of unwanted minerals.
c. a monotonous diet may lead to decreased appetite and severe weight loss.
d. large amounts of the same foods may lead to an excess of certain vitamins.

a

Because nutrition science is a young category compared to other sciences, findings in nutrition research have been:

a. extremely limited in the scientific community.
b. very definite because of new technology.
c. reported quickly because of the need for the public to know.
d. contradictory because of new theories being tested.

d

The main purpose of the national research projects, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) and the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), is to:

a. determine what types of foods are available in grocery stores and supermarkets.
b. determine what the nutrient and dietary intakes of the population in our country are.
c. identify what foods have been imported from other countries.
d. set regulations for food intake in individuals of different ages.

b

An individual who blames his weight gain on his wife for cooking all the wrong types of foods may have difficulty with making behavioral changes because his confidence is affected by:

a. high self-efficacy.
b. an internal locus of control.
c. an external locus of control.
d. high competence.

c

A woman who is trying to lose weight will be more motivated if she considers:

a. trying some recipes from a new cookbook.
b. the reward of being able to fit into her favorite clothes again.
c. asking her husband to cook their meals.
d. the confidence she has from setting goals for changing eating habits.

b

Three ounces of beef stew offers about the same amount of iron as three ounces of water-packed tuna, but the beef contains over 300 calories while the tuna contains about 100 calories. This is an example of:

a. balance.
b. nutrient density.
c. dietary variety.
d. moderation.

b

You can tell a claim about nutrition is suspect if it bears the following characteristics:

a. it is being made by an advertiser who is paid to make claims.
b. the evidence used to support the claim is from a university laboratory.
c. it appears in a scientific journal that is peer-reviewed.
d. it is being made by a public health nutritionist.

a

Characteristics of a legitimate and qualified nutrition expert include:

a. graduation from a university after completing a program of dietetics.
b. completion of a medical degree.
c. use of the term "nutritionist" after the individual's name.
d. completion of a certificate in nutrition from a correspondence program.

a

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