5 Domestic Impacts of War I
a. Economy b. Government Partnership with Business c. Great Migration, 1916 - 1920 d. Drive for National Unity e. Government and Labor
How did WWI affect the economy?
i. European Allies approached the US for nearly everything they needed
1. Arms, food, raw materials, etc
2. American economy went from limping along to greatly increasing
3. Cotton nearly quadrupled in price, as did other major farm commodities
ii. With such an improvement in US economy, some sort of regulation was needed
How did the government partner with business during WWI?
i. War Industries Board ii. The US government also cooperated with businesses to somewhat regulate labor (wasn't as successful in increasing efficiency as WIB)
War Industries Board
-government agency oversaw the production of all American factories. -determined priorities -allocated raw materials -fixed prices -told manufacturers what they could and could not produce. -US industrial production increased 20%
Great Migration (1916-1920)
i. African-Americans migrate northward in search of unskilled labor
ii. They were attracted to large cities with wartime industries
-Detroit, an important wartime industrial city, experienced an almost 600% rise in its black population
iii. lead to drive for national unity
What did the Great Migration cause to happen in urban environments?
i. Rise of Black Ghettos
1. While blacks were allowed more civil rights in the north than in the south, there was still widespread discrimination
2. Discrimination was most prevalent in housing, and landlords and homeowners would not rent or sell to blacks
3. This forced blacks to live in areas where they could get housing, which would be together in the same area
ii. Anti-Black Violence
1. In the early 19th century, "race riots" were not in fact minorities rioting, instead, it was whites rioting against blacks
2. 1919 was the harshest year for race riots, with outbreaks lasting for longer then a day
Key factors in drive for National Unity
i. Committee on Public Information ii. Xenophobia was high during iii. Espionage Act, 1917 iv. Sedition Act, 1918 v. Wilson's fourteen points
Committee on Public Information
1. Created to influence U.S. public opinion regarding American participation in World War I.
2. Used every media available to create enthusiasm for the war effort and enlist public support against foreign attempts to undercut America's war aims.
3. George Creel served as chairman and led the Committee
What were popular ideas centered around Xenophobia?
1. German words were changed (sauerkraut → freedom cabbage)
2. Buying liberty bonds were strongly encouraged, and if one did not buy one their patriotism would be questioned
3. wouldn't play Beethoven 4. newspapers ran lists of "slackers"
Espionage Act (1917)
1. Made illegal to convey information with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the armed forces of the United States or to promote the success of its enemies. This was punishable by death or by imprisonment for not more than 30 years
2. Made illegal To convey false reports or false statements with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the military or naval forces of the United States or to promote the success of its enemies and whoever when the United States is at war
Sedition Act (1918)
1. Forbade the use of "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about the United States government, its flag, or its armed forces or that caused others to view the American government or its institutions with contempt
2. The act also allowed the Postmaster General to refuse to deliver mail that met those same standards for punishable speech or opinion
Wilson's Fourteen Points
1. Speech delivered by United States President Woodrow Wilson to a joint session of Congress on January 8, 1918.
2. The address was intended to assure the country that the Great War was being fought for a moral cause and for postwar peace in Europe
3. At Versailles, Wilson negotiated the peace treaty himself
List 3 of Wilson's 14 points...
-Open covenants of peace -Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas -establishment of equality of trade -national armaments will be reduced -open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims based on sovereignty -evacuation of all Russian territory Belgium must be evacuated and restored -All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored -readjustment of the frontiers of Italy -peoples of Austria-Hungary freed Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated; occupied territories restored; Serbia accorded free and secure access to the sea -general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike. -ect...
Causes of WWI
-culturally closer to France and Great Britain then Germany
-loaned far more money to GB and F than G
-freedom of the seas
-Germany began submarine warfare which was deemed to be cowardly
-Wilson was personally much fonder of GB
-Mexico was scheming with Germany to attack the US if we went to war
-Mexico was still angry about the Mexican War
-if Mexico helped and Germany won, Mexico would get all of its old land back
How did the government get involved in labor?
-had to regulate labor because you couldn't have disruptions
-1.2 million Americans were in Europe and no one was immigrating to the US so there was a huge labor scarcity
-leadership of AF of L threw their leadership into the war effort -promised they'd do everything to prevent strikes
-times were good so a ton of people joined the AF of L
-War Labor Board
What was the War Labor Board?
-legally enabled to arbitrate disputes between laborers and employers
-provided 8 hour work day and minimum wage
-when the war ends labor goes on the defensive almost over night
-people accused them of being socialist
-most benefits gained during the war disappeared
What Benefits did blacks have in the North over the South?
-better schools for children
-higher paying jobs
-right to vote
-more unskilled jobs
Who was Wilson's main enemy in the senate?
-Henry Cabot Lodge was his enemy and the leader of the senate
Why did Wilson lose in the next election?
-should have stayed home to try and get some votes
-hurt him and there was a republican landslide in the next election
-Americans were hurting in their pocketbooks from wartime inflation
-Wilson alienated the republicans when he needed them most
-didn't take a single republican with him when he left to negotiate
What were the American's reaction to the treaty?
-shocked -Wilson had some successes but the Americans were shocked by the concessions -he had raised expectations to think that Americans were going on to democratize the world with progressive ideas, which was not the case
What was passed at The Treaty of Versailles
-boundaries for each ethnic group to have their own country(not Yugoslavia) -Poland got part of Germany(angered germans) -Italy allowed to keep a large portion of southern Austria -germans kept colonies under control of League of Nations -League of Nations Created -France got Western Germany, (industrialized portion) for 15 years
-Germany had to take full responsibility for the war
-navy and air force were disbanded
-most shocking part was the heavy monetary burden that Germany had to pay (200 billion dollars in war reparations)
-nothing was said about freedom of the seas
-no open and public diplomacy
league of nations
International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.
Why didn't US join League of Nations?
if Wilson had been willing to compromise he could have gotten the League of Nations through, but he wouldn't -people were not willing to sign away American sovereignty to Europeans
-wouldn't give up article 10 in the League of Nations
-bill was refused 3 times and Wilson wouldn't give up
-it eventually killed him
What was Article 10 in League of Nations?
the United States would be bound by international contract to enter conflicts involving a League of Nations member on the side of that member.
What was Wilson's main political weakness?
His foreign diplomacy