# Networking Chapter 6 - Questions

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Both are 32 bits

### What is the name for the decimal representation of the binary IP address called?

Dotted decimal notation

8 bits

### Define the network portion of an IP address?

Some portion of the most significant bits, or high-order bits represent the network portion

### What is the host portion of the IP address?

The remaining amount of available network addresses after the network portion is determined

### What does the number of bits assigned to host determine?

Determines the number of total hosts within the network.

### What is the binary range in decimal of a byte?

128-0

A special address that refers to the network

A special address used to send data to all hosts in the network.

The unicast addresses assigned to the end devices in the network.

### What is assigned to determine how many bits are in network bits?

A prefix length written in slash format

No

### How do you calculate the network value?

All host bits are 0

### How do you calculate the first host value?

By taking how many remaining bits you have from the prefix length and using the 2 to the power of that value minus 2.

The broadcast address uses the highest address in the network range, this is the address in which all of the bits in the host portion are all 1's.

### How do you calculate the last host address?

Using the remaining amount of available bits from the prefix length will allow you to calculate the last host address by setting all of the remaining bits to 1.

### Define unicast, broadcast, and multicast

Unicast - the process of sending a packet from one host to an individual host
Broadcast - the process of sending a packet from one host to all hosts in the network
Multicast - the process of sending a packet from one host to a selected group of hosts

### How does a host process a broadcast transmission?

It processes the packet as it would a packet to its unicast address.

### What is a broadcast transmission used for?

The location of special services/devices for which the address is not known or when a host needs to provide information to all the hosts on the network.

### When does a host send a broadcast?

When a host needs information or needs to send information

### How do hosts with the information usually respond to the broadcast?

One or more of the hosts will respond typically using unicast.

### What is a directed broadcast?

Useful for sending a broadcast to all hosts on a nonlocal network

### What is a limited broadcast used for?

Used for communication that is limited to the hosts on the local network

Router

### What is multicast designed to do?

To conserve the bandwidth of the IPv4 network, it reduces traffic by allowing a host to send a single packet to a selected set of hosts.

### What are the 4 examples of multicast transmissions?

Video and audio broadcasts, routing information exchange by some routing protocols, distribution of software, news feeds

### How are multicast addresses assigned?

They use services initiated by a client program to subscribe to the multicast group.

### What is the range for multicast addresses?

224.0.0.0 - 239.255.255.255

### What is the range for experimental addresses?

240.0.0.0 - 255.255.255.254

### List the three private address blocks? (This is incredibly important for network administrators to know)

The private address block are: 10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255, 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255, 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255

### What happens if a packet with a private IP address was sent to the Internet?

The routers would not have routes to forward them to the appropriate private network.

### How does NAT allow a host with a private address to access the Internet?

Allows the hosts in the private network to borrow a public address to communicate to outside networks.

169.254.0.0 - 169.254.255.255

Automatically assigned to the local host by the operating system in environments where no IP configuration is available.

### What is the first octet range of Class A? B? C? D? E?

A - 1-127/ B - 128-191/ C - 192-223/ D - Multicast / E - Experimental

### Why should the allocation of addresses inside the networks be planned and documented for the purpose of?

Preventing duplication of addresses, providing and controlling access, monitoring security and performance

### What are the different examples of types of hosts?

End devices for users, servers and peripherals, hosts that are accessible from the Internet, Intermediary devices

### Which devices should have a static IP address? Why?

Printers, servers, and other networking devices that need to be accessible to clients. Because if hosts typically access a server at a particular IP address, it would cause problems if that address changed.

### What does DHCP provide for an end device?

Automatic assignment of an IP address including subnet mask, and default gateway.

### What does almost all traffic pass through when going between networks?

An intermediary device like a router.

### Which IP addresses are used for router interfaces?

Usually the lowest or the highest address in the network but it should be uniform across all networks in a corporation.

### What is the organization that assigns IP addresses in the US?

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)

### What are the advantages of having a Tier 1 ISP?

Reliability and speed, only one connection away from the Internet, fewer opportunities for failures or traffic bottlenecks.

### What is the focus of a Tier 2 ISP?

Focus on business customers and usually offer more services than the other two tiers of ISPs

### What is the focus of a Tier 3 ISP?

Focus on retail and home markets in a specific locale.

### What were the other issues that were considered when developing IPv6?

Improved packet handling, increased scalability and longevity, quality of service (QoS) mechanisms, integrated security.

### List the added features of IPv6.

128-bit hierarchical addressing to expand addressing capabilities, header format simplification to improve packet handling, improved support for extensions and options, flow-labeling capabilities as QoS mechanisms, authentication and privacy capabilities to integrate security

### How is the subnet mask created?

You turn the network portion of the address into all 1s.

### What is true if the octet of the subnet mask is 255?

Then the binary form of that octet is all 1s.

### What is true if the octet of the subnet mask is 0?

Then the binary form of that octet is all Os

### What is ping?

A utility for testing IP connectivity between hosts.

### What happens when the destination host receives an echo request?

It responds with an ICMP echo reply datagram

127.0.0.1

### What does a response from the local host tell you?

Indicates that IP is properly installed on the host

### What doesn't the response from the local host tell you?

It doesn't tell you an indication that the addresses, masks, or gateways are properly configured.

### What does it tell you if a ping to the gateway is successful?

Indicates that the host and the router's interface serving as that gateway are both operation and on the local network.

### What does it tell you if a ping to the remote host is successful?

You will have verified the operation of a large piece of the internetwork.

### What does the traceroute utility do?

Allows you to observe the path between these hosts, generates a list of hops that were successfully reached along the path.

### Define Round Trip Time (RTT).

The time a packet takes to reach the remote host and for the response from the host to return, an asterisk is used to indicate a lost packet.

### Define Time to Live (TTL).

A field in the IP header that prevents a packet from indefinitely looping around an IP internetwork.

### What does ICMP provide for the TCP/IP protocol stack?

Provides control and error messages and is used by the ping and traceroute utilities

### List the 5 ICMP messages that may be sent.

Host confirmation, Unreachable destination or service, Time exceeded, Route redirection, Source quench.

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