What is the name for the decimal representation of the binary IP address called?
Dotted decimal notation
Define the network portion of an IP address?
Some portion of the most significant bits, or high-order bits represent the network portion
What is the host portion of the IP address?
The remaining amount of available network addresses after the network portion is determined
What does the number of bits assigned to host determine?
Determines the number of total hosts within the network.
What is the range where host addresses are assigned?
Between the network address and the broadcast address.
What is assigned to determine how many bits are in network bits?
A prefix length written in slash format
How do you calculate the first host value?
By taking how many remaining bits you have from the prefix length and using the 2 to the power of that value minus 2.
How do you calculate the broadcast address?
The broadcast address uses the highest address in the network range, this is the address in which all of the bits in the host portion are all 1's.
How do you calculate the last host address?
Using the remaining amount of available bits from the prefix length will allow you to calculate the last host address by setting all of the remaining bits to 1.
Define unicast, broadcast, and multicast
Unicast - the process of sending a packet from one host to an individual host
Broadcast - the process of sending a packet from one host to all hosts in the network
Multicast - the process of sending a packet from one host to a selected group of hosts
How does a host process a broadcast transmission?
It processes the packet as it would a packet to its unicast address.
What is a broadcast transmission used for?
The location of special services/devices for which the address is not known or when a host needs to provide information to all the hosts on the network.
What are the three examples of broadcast transmissions?
Mapping upper-layer addresses to lower-layer addresses, requesting an address, exchanging routing information by routing protocols.
How do hosts with the information usually respond to the broadcast?
One or more of the hosts will respond typically using unicast.
What is a limited broadcast used for?
Used for communication that is limited to the hosts on the local network
What is multicast designed to do?
To conserve the bandwidth of the IPv4 network, it reduces traffic by allowing a host to send a single packet to a selected set of hosts.
What are the 4 examples of multicast transmissions?
Video and audio broadcasts, routing information exchange by some routing protocols, distribution of software, news feeds
How are multicast addresses assigned?
They use services initiated by a client program to subscribe to the multicast group.
List the three private address blocks? (This is incredibly important for network administrators to know)
The private address block are: 10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255, 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255, 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255
What happens if a packet with a private IP address was sent to the Internet?
The routers would not have routes to forward them to the appropriate private network.
What is NAT Network Address Translation services used for?
Changes the private space addresses in the IPv4 packet header to a public space address
How does NAT allow a host with a private address to access the Internet?
Allows the hosts in the private network to borrow a public address to communicate to outside networks.
When is a local link address assigned to a device?
Automatically assigned to the local host by the operating system in environments where no IP configuration is available.
What is the first octet range of Class A? B? C? D? E?
A - 1-127/ B - 128-191/ C - 192-223/ D - Multicast / E - Experimental
What is the limitation of classful routing?
Often wasted many addresses which exhausted the availability of IPv4 addresses
Why should the allocation of addresses inside the networks be planned and documented for the purpose of?
Preventing duplication of addresses, providing and controlling access, monitoring security and performance
What are the different examples of types of hosts?
End devices for users, servers and peripherals, hosts that are accessible from the Internet, Intermediary devices
What considerations should be used about where private IP addresses should be used?
If private addresses require access to the Internet, is the network capable of providing a Network Address Translation service or (NAT)
Which devices should have a static IP address? Why?
Printers, servers, and other networking devices that need to be accessible to clients. Because if hosts typically access a server at a particular IP address, it would cause problems if that address changed.
What does DHCP provide for an end device?
Automatic assignment of an IP address including subnet mask, and default gateway.
What does almost all traffic pass through when going between networks?
An intermediary device like a router.
Which IP addresses are used for router interfaces?
Usually the lowest or the highest address in the network but it should be uniform across all networks in a corporation.
What is the organization that assigns IP addresses in the US?
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
What are the advantages of having a Tier 1 ISP?
Reliability and speed, only one connection away from the Internet, fewer opportunities for failures or traffic bottlenecks.
What is the focus of a Tier 2 ISP?
Focus on business customers and usually offer more services than the other two tiers of ISPs
What were the other issues that were considered when developing IPv6?
Improved packet handling, increased scalability and longevity, quality of service (QoS) mechanisms, integrated security.
List the added features of IPv6.
128-bit hierarchical addressing to expand addressing capabilities, header format simplification to improve packet handling, improved support for extensions and options, flow-labeling capabilities as QoS mechanisms, authentication and privacy capabilities to integrate security
What happens when the destination host receives an echo request?
It responds with an ICMP echo reply datagram
What does a response from the local host tell you?
Indicates that IP is properly installed on the host
What doesn't the response from the local host tell you?
It doesn't tell you an indication that the addresses, masks, or gateways are properly configured.
What does it tell you if a ping to the gateway is successful?
Indicates that the host and the router's interface serving as that gateway are both operation and on the local network.
What does it tell you if a ping to the remote host is successful?
You will have verified the operation of a large piece of the internetwork.
What does the traceroute utility do?
Allows you to observe the path between these hosts, generates a list of hops that were successfully reached along the path.
Define Round Trip Time (RTT).
The time a packet takes to reach the remote host and for the response from the host to return, an asterisk is used to indicate a lost packet.
Define Time to Live (TTL).
A field in the IP header that prevents a packet from indefinitely looping around an IP internetwork.
What does ICMP provide for the TCP/IP protocol stack?
Provides control and error messages and is used by the ping and traceroute utilities