Tennessee Valley Authority, 1933
a federally owned corporation in the United States created by congressional charter in May 1933 to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly impacted by the Great Depression. The TVA was envisioned not only as an electricity provider, but also as a regional economic development agency that would use federal experts and electricity to rapidly modernize the region's economy and society.
Dr. Francis Townsend
an American physician who was best known for his revolving old-age pension proposal during the Great Depression. Known as the "Townsend Plan," this proposal influenced the establishment of the Roosevelt administration's Social Security system.
Father Charles Coughlin
Canadian-born Roman Catholic priest at Royal Oak, Michigan's National Shrine of the Little Flower Church. He was one of the first political leaders to use radio to reach a mass audience, as more than forty million tuned to his weekly broadcasts during the 1930s. This radio program included commentary about Jews that was widely regarded as antisemitism, as well as rationalizations of some of the policies of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini that many people found objectionable. The broadcasts have been called "a variation of the Fascist agenda applied to American culture". His chief topics were political and economic rather than religious, with his slogan being Social Justice, first with, then against, the New Deal.
Huey P Long
nicknamed The Kingfish, was an American politician from the U.S. state of Louisiana. A Democrat, he was noted for his radical populist policies. He served as Governor of Louisiana from 1928 to 1932 and as a U.S. senator from 1932 to 1935. Though a backer of Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 presidential election, Long split with Roosevelt in June 1933 and allegedly planned to mount his own presidential bid.
Social Security Act, 1935
drafted by President Roosevelt's committee on economic security, under Edwin Witte, and passed by Congress as part of the New Deal. It was controversial when originally proposed, with one point of opposition being that it would cause a loss of jobs. However, proponents argued that there was in fact an advantage: it would encourage older workers to retire, thereby creating opportunities for younger people to find jobs, which would lower the unemployment rate. Historian Edward Berkowitz subsequently contended that the Act was a cause of the "Roosevelt Recession" in 1937 and 1938. However, the program has gone on to be one of the most popular government programs in American history
Works Progress Administration
the largest New Deal agency, employing millions of people and affecting most every locality, especially rural and western mountain populations. It was created in April, 1935 by Presidential order, and activated with Congressional funding in July of that year (U.S. Congress funded it annually but did not set it up
Wagner Act, 1935
United States federal law that protects the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands. The Act does not, on the other hand, cover those workers who are covered by the Railway Labor Act, agricultural employees, domestic employees, supervisors, independent contractors and some close relatives of individual employers.
NLRB v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corp, 1937
United States Supreme Court case that declared that the National Labor Relations Act (commonly known as the Wagner Act) was constitutional. It effectively spelled the end to the court's striking down of New Deal economic legislation, and greatly increased Congress's power under the Commerce Clause.
Norris-LaGuardia Act, 1932
a United States federal law that made yellow-dog contracts, or those in which a worker agreed as a condition of employment that he would not join a labor union, unenforceable in federal court; the common title followed from the names of the sponsors of the legislation: Republican Senator George Norris of Nebraska and Representative Fiorello H. LaGuardia of New York. The act established as United States law that employees should be free to form unions without employer interferences and also withdrew from the federal courts jurisdiction relative to the issuance of injunctions in nonviolent labor disputes.
Commitee for Industrial Organization, 1935
proposed by Senator Huey Long in 1932, was a federation of unions that organized workers in industrial unions in the United States and Canada from 1935 to 1955 The CIO failed to change AFL policy from within, and on September 10, 1936, the AFL suspended all 10 CIO unions (two more had joined in the previous year).
John L. Lewis
an American leader of organized labor who served as president of the United Mine Workers of America from 1920 to 1960. He was a major player in the history of coal mining. He was the driving force behind the founding of the Congress of Industrial Organizations, which established the United Steel Workers of America and helped organize millions of other industrial workers in the 1930s
Walsh-Healy Act, 1936
stated that workers must be paid not less than the "prevailing minimum wage" normally paid in a locality; restricted regular work ing hours to eight hours a day and 40 hours a week, with time-and-a-half pay for additional hours; prohibited the employment of convicts and children under 18; and established sanitation and safety standards.
Fair Labor Standards Act, 1938
is United States federal law that applies to employees engaged in interstate commerce or employed by an enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce, unless the employer can claim an exemption from coverage. The FLSA established a national minimum wage, guaranteed time and a half for overtime in certain jobs, and prohibited most employment of minors in "oppressive child labor," a term defined in the statute.
Causes of Depression
a deflationary spiral forced dramatic falls in asset and commodity prices, dramatic drops in demand and credit, and disruption of trade, ultimately resulting in widespread poverty and unemployment
Relierf, Recovery, Reform
The New Deal is the title that President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to a sequence of programs and promises he initiated between 1933 and 1938 with the goal of giving relief, reform, and recovery to the people and economy of the United States during the Great Depression
a series of thirty evening radio speeches given by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt between 1933 and 1944. americans loved them, and they helped americans to believe in FDR
Emergency Banking Act, 1933
an act of the United States Congress spearheaded by President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the Great Depression. It was passed on March 9, 1933. The act allowed a plan that would close down insolvent banks and reorganize and reopen those banks strong enough to survive
Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act, 1933
established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and included banking reforms, some of which were designed to control speculation. Some provisions such as Regulation Q that allowed the Federal Reserve to regulate interest rates in savings accounts were repealed by the Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980. Other provisions which prohibit a bank holding company from owning other financial companies were repealed in 1999 by the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
a United States government corporation created by the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933. The vast number of bank failures in the Great Depression spurred the United States Congress into creating an institution which would guarantee deposits held by commercial banks, inspired by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and its Depositors Insurance Fund (DIF). The FDIC provides deposit insurance which currently guarantees checking and savings deposits in member banks up to $100,000 per depositor.
Securities and Exchange Commission, 1934
a United States government agency having primary responsibility for enforcing the federal securities laws and regulating the securities industry/stock market.
Civilian Concervation Corps
a work relief program for young men from unemployed families, established on March 19, 1933 by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. As part of Roosevelt's New Deal legislation, it was designed to combat unemployment during the Great Depression. The CCC became one of the most popular New Deal programs among the general public and operated in every U.S. state and several territories. The separate Indian Division was a major relief force for Native American reservations during the Depression.
Federal Emergency Relief Administration
(FERA) was the name given by the Roosevelt Administration to a program similar to unemployment-relief efforts of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) set up by Herbert Hoover and the U.S. Congress in 1932. It was established as a result of the Federal Emergency Relief Act of 1933. The Federal Emergency Relief Act was the first direct-relief operation under the New Deal, and was headed by Harry L. Hopkins,
one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend Lease program that sent aid to the allies.
Home Owners Loan Corporation
a New Deal agency established in 1933 under President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Its purpose was to refinance homes to prevent foreclosure. It was used to extend loans from shorter loans to 15 year loans. Through its work it granted long term mortgages to over a million people facing the loss of their homes. The HOLC stopped lending in June 1936 by the terms of the HOLC act. HOLC was only applicable to nonfarm homes. HOLC also bailed out mortgage-holding banks. The HOLC was a tremendous success
a series of dust storms (sometimes referred to as black blizzards) causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands from 1930 to 1936 (in some areas until 1940), caused by severe drought conditions coupled with decades of extensive farming without crop rotation or other techniques that prevented erosion. The fertile soil of the Great Plains was exposed through removal of grass during plowing. During the drought, soil dried out, became dust, and blew away eastwards and southwards, mostly in large black clouds. At times, the clouds blackened the sky all the way to California, and much of the soil was completely deposited into the Atlantic Ocean. began as the economic effects of the depression were intensifying
McNary-Haugen Farm Bill
a proposed bill in the 1920s to limit agricultural sales within the United States, and either store them or export them. It was co-authored by Charles L. McNary (R-Oregon) and Gilbert N. Haugen (R-Iowa). Despite attempts in 1924, 1926, and 1928 to pass the bill — it was vetoed by President Calvin Coolidge, and never approved. It was supported by then Secretary of Agriculture Henry C. Wallace.
Agricultural Adjustment Act, 1933
restricted production during the New Deal by paying farmers to reduce crop area. Its purpose was to reduce crop surplus so as to effectively raise the value of crops, thereby giving farmers relative stability again. The farmers were paid subsidies by the federal government for leaving some of their fields unused. The Act created a new agency, the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, to oversee the distribution of the subsidies. It is considered the first modern U.S. farm bill
United States v Butler, 1936
the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the processing taxes instituted under the 1933 Agricultural Adjustment Act were unconstitutional. Justice Owen Josephus Roberts argued that the tax was "but a means to an unconstitutional end" that violated the Tenth Amendment
Second Agricultural Adjustment ct, 1938
legislation in the United States that resulted from the unconstitutionality of previous New Deal farm legislation (Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933) and the success of the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act passed in 1936.
Resettlement Administration, 1935
the brainchild of Rexford G. Tugwell, an economics professor at Columbia University who became an advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the latter's campaign for the presidency in 1932. Tugwell, who held positions in the United States Department of Agriculture, convinced Roosevelt to form an agency that would relocate struggling urban and rural families to communities planned by the federal government. Roosevelt established the RA with Executive Order 7027 in 1935 and Tugwell became its first and only head. The RA operated through the end of 1936, when, due to Congressional criticism, it was folded into a new body, the Farm Security Administration (FSA), which operated from 1937 to 1942.
Indian Reorganization Act, 1934
a U.S. federal legislation which secured certain rights to Native Americans, including Alaska Natives. These include a reversal of the Dawes Act's privatization of common holdings of American Indians and a return to local self-government on a tribal basis. The Act also restored to Native Americans the management of their assets (being mainly land) and included provisions intended to create a sound economic foundation for the inhabitants of Indian reservations
National Industry Recovery Act
formerly codified at 15 U.S.C. sec. 703, was part of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal. It authorized the President to regulate banks, and stimulate the United States economy to recover from the Great Depression.
Schecter Poultry Corp v United tates, 1935
decision by the Supreme Court of the United States that invalidated regulations of the poultry industry promulgated under the authority of the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933. These included price and wage fixing, as well as requirements regarding a whole shipment of chickens, including unhealthy ones, which has led to the case becoming known as "the sick chicken case." Also encompassed in the decision were NIRA provisions regarding maximum work hours and a right of unions to organize. The ruling was one of a series which overturned elements of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal legislation