Castaneda Vs Pickard
Three-part assessment responsible for meeting the requirements of the Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974
•Based on sound educational theory.
•Implemented effectively with resources for personnel, instructional materials, and space."
•After a trial period, the program must be proven effective in overcoming language barriers/handicaps.
Ramirez Study 1984
US gov sponsored study comparing the effectiveness of 3 program models:
structured english immersion
word formation. Words are made up of units of meaning called morphemes
EX: CARS= CAR root word and S indicating plural
is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.
Predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing contribute to comprehension.
Graph- phonemic awareness
Sequence of letters (or graphemes) represents the sequence of sounds (or phonemes) in spoken words. (letters = words)
Dif. sound each letter makes in certain words
to recognize the phonemes (sounds). In K- rhyming/ orally producing/manipulatives.
The ability to recognize the sounds (segment words into units called syllables)
Sheltered English Instruction
Teachers modify to increase comprehensible input. Use of demonstrations, visuals, graphic organizers and cooperative grouping.
theory that provides support for late-exit bilingual programs
1) avoid negative effects of bilingualism
2) Experience positive effects of bilingualism.
transitional bilingual/ Early-Exit Bilingual Programs
•L1 and L2 used, with quick progression to all or most instruction in L2
•Assist transition to English. Goal: transfer to L2 only classroom.
developmental bilingual education
keep L1 while learning L2 for students to be able to function academically and socially
Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (S.D.A.I.E.)
teaching content in English to students still learning
•Requires intermediate fluency in English and mastery of L1.
•English content supported by L1 and comp. input Instruction
self contained bilingual education
receive min 45 minutes of ESL instruction to promote english development
*Best ensures academic success
sheltered english instruction is more appropriate for students who are at the intermediate or advanced proficiency level in English
students acquire English structures in a predictable sequence with variations depending on L1
1) Preproduction (listening skills) - teachers chose level.
2) Early production (two words and short phrases) - teachers chose level.
3) speech emergence (long phrases and simple sentences)
4) Intermediate fluency - focus on maximizing comprehensible input in low anxiety situations.
Proficiency level Descriptors
•Little or no ability to understand spoken English.
•Struggle to identify words/phrases
•Doesn't seek clarification
•Understands simple, high frequency spoken English
•Understands simple or routine directions
•Identify key words
•Understands social and academic language with support
•Understand longer, elaborated instructions
•Beginning: single words/ short phrases
oLack English grammar
•Intermediate: simple/ original messages
oUse basic vocabulary/ emerging vocabulary
Responsible for identifying, placing, and assessing ELL (Composed of teachers, parents, and administrators.)
•LPAC advocates assuring, affective, linguistic, and cognitive needs are met.
•Review data upon initial enrollment and annually.
Language Experience Approach
Promote reading/writing through personal experience (they chose the difficulty level of vocabulary/grammar)
ELPS: Expectations for EVERY content area (all lessons must include both content objectives and language objectives)
•need social and academic language skills
•Opportunities to listen, speak, read and write using current skills and building skills.
•Establishes Proficiency levels: (not grade-specific and students may be at different levels)
Beginning- Use graphic org when taking notes or communicating ideas
Intermediate- participates in guided discussions/can write summary
Texas English Language Proficiency Assessment System:
check progress made in bilingual programs and try to get student out of program (determine student level based on observations and work)
Scribbling- letter like symbols
Random letters-create individual letters in attempt to create a word (randomly selected/no connection)
Invented words- students try to connect sound and letter i.e. Park = Prk
Civil Rights Act: Title VI (1964)
prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national origin in the operation of federally assisted programs
Bilingual Education Act- Title VII (7)
provides funds for training and materials for a bilingual teacher.
Defined English as primary language. Allowed for creation of Bilingual Education Programs K-6.
SB 121 Texas Bilingual Education and Training Act 1973
requires the starting of a bilingual program if no progress in LEP students
Chapter 89 of the Texas Education Code
Requires BL and ESL programs- defines how students are identified, placed, and monitored.