Plyler vs Doe
Allow children of undocumented parents to receive a free education
Lau vs Nichols
Better education for minority linguistic students
Meyer Vs Nebraska
Cannot teach German before 8th grade
Castaneda Vs Pickard
Three-part assessment responsible for meeting the requirements of the Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974
•Based on sound educational theory.
•Implemented effectively with resources for personnel, instructional materials, and space."
•After a trial period, the program must be proven effective in overcoming language barriers/handicaps.
Rios vs Reed
Case: use of L1 while developing English Proficiency
Ramirez Study 1984
US gov sponsored study comparing the effectiveness of 3 program models:
structured english immersion
it challenged and identified flaws. Lacked Clarity.
can read and write in 2 languages
2 distinct cultures present
to get used to
lose L1 while using L2
members within the same society accept values/principles of other cultures.
intro to new elements of culture
the study of sound
word formation. Words are made up of units of meaning called morphemes
EX: CARS= CAR root word and S indicating plural
is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.
1 word has multiple meanings
EX: HOT = temperature, fashion, or luck
Predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing contribute to comprehension.
Graph- phonemic awareness
Sequence of letters (or graphemes) represents the sequence of sounds (or phonemes) in spoken words. (letters = words)
Dif. sound each letter makes in certain words
to recognize the phonemes (sounds). In K- rhyming/ orally producing/manipulatives.
The ability to recognize the sounds (segment words into units called syllables)
use various formats to understand print
location of function of sides of brain
Begining of word
EX: Pre, anti, sub
ending of word
EX: -ing, -s, -es, -est
EX: espeak or estring
track of progress toward language and content mastery
checking comprehension, a passage with omitted words the test taker must supply.
taught in a comprehensible manner
Sheltered English Instruction
Teachers modify to increase comprehensible input. Use of demonstrations, visuals, graphic organizers and cooperative grouping.
teachers knows info and is able to pass down in both languages
only ENGLISH is used
theory that provides support for late-exit bilingual programs
1) avoid negative effects of bilingualism
2) Experience positive effects of bilingualism.
Connect letters with sounds to create words
Both english and L1 are used.
transitional bilingual/ Early-Exit Bilingual Programs
•L1 and L2 used, with quick progression to all or most instruction in L2
•Assist transition to English. Goal: transfer to L2 only classroom.
developmental bilingual education
keep L1 while learning L2 for students to be able to function academically and socially
Two-way bilingual programs: (dual language)
50/50 balance/instruction between both languages.
Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (S.D.A.I.E.)
teaching content in English to students still learning
•Requires intermediate fluency in English and mastery of L1.
•English content supported by L1 and comp. input Instruction
self contained bilingual education
receive min 45 minutes of ESL instruction to promote english development
*Best ensures academic success
sounds->words-> sentences and larger to achieve oral and written communication
sheltered english instruction is more appropriate for students who are at the intermediate or advanced proficiency level in English
students acquire English structures in a predictable sequence with variations depending on L1
1) Preproduction (listening skills) - teachers chose level.
2) Early production (two words and short phrases) - teachers chose level.
3) speech emergence (long phrases and simple sentences)
4) Intermediate fluency - focus on maximizing comprehensible input in low anxiety situations.
developed audio lingual method saying children are born with a clean slate-tabula rasa
Proficiency level Descriptors
•Little or no ability to understand spoken English.
•Struggle to identify words/phrases
•Doesn't seek clarification
•Understands simple, high frequency spoken English
•Understands simple or routine directions
•Identify key words
•Understands social and academic language with support
•Understand longer, elaborated instructions
•Beginning: single words/ short phrases
oLack English grammar
•Intermediate: simple/ original messages
oUse basic vocabulary/ emerging vocabulary
use of L1 and L2 this fascilitates L2 acquisition
Slowly lose L1
Responsible for identifying, placing, and assessing ELL (Composed of teachers, parents, and administrators.)
•LPAC advocates assuring, affective, linguistic, and cognitive needs are met.
•Review data upon initial enrollment and annually.
Language Experience Approach
Promote reading/writing through personal experience (they chose the difficulty level of vocabulary/grammar)
ELPS: Expectations for EVERY content area (all lessons must include both content objectives and language objectives)
•need social and academic language skills
•Opportunities to listen, speak, read and write using current skills and building skills.
•Establishes Proficiency levels: (not grade-specific and students may be at different levels)
Beginning- Use graphic org when taking notes or communicating ideas
Intermediate- participates in guided discussions/can write summary
Texas English Language Proficiency Assessment System:
check progress made in bilingual programs and try to get student out of program (determine student level based on observations and work)
Spanish word that sounds similar in L2.
•facilitate comprehension (by use of context clues)
Cumming's Common Underlying Prof- CUP
cognitive academic skills known in L1 transfer to L2
admission, review, dismissal
Scribbling- letter like symbols
Random letters-create individual letters in attempt to create a word (randomly selected/no connection)
Invented words- students try to connect sound and letter i.e. Park = Prk
1882 Act to Regulate Immigration
Prohibited entry to people not able to care for themselves
Naturalization Act of 1996
must know English to naturalize
Cultural Deficiency Theory
says minority students do not perform well due to cultural differences
Natural Defense Act 1958
Funding for Math, Science and Foreign Language education.
Civil Rights Act: Title VI (1964)
prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national origin in the operation of federally assisted programs
Immigration Act 1965
immigrants welcomed for skills and professions (space limited per country)
Bilingual Education Act- Title VII (7)
provides funds for training and materials for a bilingual teacher.
Defined English as primary language. Allowed for creation of Bilingual Education Programs K-6.
SB 121 Texas Bilingual Education and Training Act 1973
requires the starting of a bilingual program if no progress in LEP students
No Child Left Behind
Establishes English Language development assessment criteria for ELLs
Chapter 89 of the Texas Education Code
Requires BL and ESL programs- defines how students are identified, placed, and monitored.
HB 1 (2005)
LPAC must monitor ELL for 2 years after exit from program.
Cognitive academic language proficiency
Processing, memory, attention, logic, and reasoning
long and short sounds provides L1 and L2 connection
help identify relationship between known and new words.
Journal writing for ELLs allows to take more risks
Factors affecting L2 acquisition
•Time in US
•Home/ school env.