Anatomy 1-12

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Autonomic Nervous System

System that controls the organs, glands, cardiac muscle & smooth muscle. Two divisions: Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Nervous systems

Sympathetic & Parasympathetic

Two divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System are:

Involuntary Nervous System

Another name for Autonomic Nervous System

ANS

Visceral muscles are mediated by what system?

Visceral Reflexes

Reflexes that regulate organ functions are called:

Visceral Reflexes

Control of: Heart rate, blood pressure, body temp., digestion, airflow thru resp. passages, elimination and pupillary eye responses are controlled by what reflexes?

Autonomic Nervous System

Control of: Heart rate, blood pressure, body temp., digestion, airflow thru resp. passages, elimination and pupillary eye responses are controlled by what division of the Nervous System?

Visceral Reflex

1. Activation of receptor 2. Transmission of sensory info to CNS 3. Processing of info by CNS 4. Motor response sent to effector Organ Is mediated by what reflex?

Medulla Oblongata

Blood pressure information is carried to THIS ORGAN by sensory nerves. This organ determines rate of blood pressure and signals heart & blood vessels to correct it. What organ is it?

Sympathetic & Parasympathetic System

Most organs receive fibers from what divisions of the Nervous system?

Dual Innervation

Term describing organs receiving fibers from both Sympathetic and Parasympathetic nervous system

Opposing effect

Dual innervation of organs in the ANS have this effect:

Complimentary effect

Erectile activity in SNA & PNS are an example of this type of effect in the ANS

Blood Vessels

Organ that does NOT have dual innervation in ANS

Blood Vessels

This organ's diameter is increased by activity and decreased by inactivity of Sympathetic Nervous System

Sympathetic Nervous System

A division of the autonomic nervous system that causes the "fight or flight" response

Sympathetic Nervous System

This system is activated during periods of stress or when a person feels threatened

Sympathetic Nervous System

This division of the nervous system is activated during times of stress and is short lived

Autonomic Dysreflexia

Out of control sympathetic activity: elevates blood pressure, can cause stroke, stimulus needs to be removed. What is the term for this?

Feed & Breed

Parasympathetic Nervous System aka

Parasympathetic Nervous system

Division of the Autonomic nervous system that is concerened with feeding & breeding

Paradoxial Fear

Parasympathetic system is activated in situations that are hopeless where massive amounts of parasympthetics are discharged resulting in uncontrolled urination/defecation, heart rate decreasing severly (fainting) or bradying down. Term for this is:

Sympathomimetic

Drug that causes similar effect to activation of sympathetic Nervous system (mimicking drug) Increases heart rate, force of cardiac contraction, blood pressure

sympathomimetic drug

Mimicking drug

inhibiting

lytic - meaning of

Sympatholytic drug

Drug that causes effects that are similar to a situation where SNS cannot be activated - Prevents. Prevents increase in cardiac activity when sympathetic nerves are fired

Parasympathomimetic drug

Causes effect similar to activation of the Parasympathetic nervous system. Decreases heart rate. Increases digestive activity.

Parasympatholytic Drug

Prevents activation of the Parasympathetic nervous system. If organ is being driven excessively by PNS, this drug blocks it.

Parasympathetic Nervous System

This system is most active during non stressfull conditions.

Parasympathetic Nervous System

This system plays an important role in digestion & reproduction.

Astropine

Drug that blocks parasympathetic effect on heart; allowing heart rate to increase. It is a parasympatholytic druge.

Autonomic Tone

When sympathetics & parasympathetics are active at the same time. Creates background (continuous low level) firing of ANS. it is called this kind of "tone".

Resting State

Parasympathetics are stronger when in this state. Heart rate approx 72 Beats per minute during this state.

Decreases

When sympathetic nerves fire more intensely, the Para activity does what?

Increases

When the Sympathetic nerves are relaxing the Para activity does what?

Hypothalamus & parts of brain stem

Balance in the Autonomic Nervous system is maintained by what 2 structures (or organs)?

Vasomotor Tone

Sympathetically induced continous state of blood vessel constriction.

Vasomotor Tone

Loss of this "tone" can dangerously lower blood pressure, plunging person into a lethal shock.

2

Pathways of ANS use how many neurons with a ganglion between each one

Brain or spinal cord (CNS)

The CELL BODY of neuron #1 (of2) in the pathway of ANS is located where?

Ganglion

Axon of Neuron #1 (of 2) in the pathway of ANS leaves the CNS & extends to the ________ (cell body) of Neuron #2

Organ

Axon of neuron #2 (0f 2) leaves ganglion and extends to the what?

Pathway of ANS

1) Axon of neuron #1 leaves CNS 2) Extends to ganglion (cell body of neuron #2). 3) Axon of neuron #2 leaves ganglion & extends to the organ. This is called:

Postganglionic fiber

A neuron that transmits actionpotential from a ganglion to a distal target organ

Preganglionic fiber

A neuron that transmits action potential from the Central Nervous system to a ganglion.

Postganglionic Fibers

These fibers of the Sympathetic & Parasympathetic nervous system secrete different neurotransmitters and account for different effects on each system.

Thorocolumbar Outflow

Sympathetic nerve activity; "flight or flight" is called this kind of "outflow"

Thorocolumbar Outflow

Neurons of SNS leave the Spinal cord at Thoracic & Lumbar levels (T-1 to L-2) and is called this kind of outflow:

Preganglionic fibers

Most of these fibers travel a short distance and synapse within glanglia close to the spinal cord.

Sympathetic ganglia

These ganglia form a chain that runs alongside the vertebral column.

Paravertebral Ganglia

The chain of sympathetic ganglia that run alonside the vertebral column are called sympathetic chain ganglia or what?

Postganglionic fibers

these fibers leave the ganglia and extend to various organs

Paravertebral ganglia

These ganglia form a site where each preganglanic fiber synapses w/multiple postganglionic fibers

widespread

Firing of a single sympathetic neuron is capable of providing a _______sympathetic response. Many organs respond.

Adrenal medulla

This organ acts as a modified sympathetic ganglion.

secrete hormones

Preganglionic sympathetic fibers supply the Adrenal Medulla and cause it to:

Adrenal Medulla

Epinephrine & norepinephrine are secreted by the:

epinephrine

_______and norepinephrine are secreted by the adrenal medulla

norepinephrine

_______ and epinephrine are secreted by the adrenal medulla

epinephrine & norepinephrine

these hormones resemble neurotransmitters of SNS and circulate in the blood

epinephrine

hormone produced by the adrenal gland, secreted when SNS is stimulated (stress). Responsible for maintaining blood pressure & cardiac output, keeping airways open wide and raising blood sugar levels.

Norepinephrine

Hormone produced by adrenal medulla, similar in chemical properties to epinephrine, but chiefly a vasoconstrictor with little effect on cardiac output.

SNS & adrenal medulla

these two function together for a sustained response

Craniosacral Outflow

Parasympathetic activity. Neurons of Para NS leave CNS at level of brain stem & sacrum S-2 to S4

Parasympathetic nerves

These nerves do NOT have a chain of ganglia running along the spinal cord because they are located close to the target organ.

preganglionic fibers

these fibers are long because because the ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system are located near the target organ

postganglionic fibers

These fibers are short and run from the ganglia to the smooth muscle or glands within the organ

parasympathetic

This activity generates a more localized response because of the location of the ganglia close to the target organs.

Parasympathetic fibers

These fibers travel from the brain stem with 4 cranial nerves

parasympathetic fibers

These fibers travel from the brain stem with 4 cranial nerves. CN-III - Oculomotor. CN-VII - facial. CNIX - glossopharangeal. CN-X - Vagus

CN III Oculomotor Nerve

This nerve innervates most of extrinsic eye muscles that move eye and travels with parasympathetic fibers to 2 extrinsic eye muscles, constrictor muscles (pupillary constriction) and Ciliary muscles (control shape of eye)

CN VII Facial Nerve

This nerve carries parasympathetic fibers to: tear glands (eyes), salivory glands (mouth) and Nasal glands (nose)

CN IX Glossopharyngeal Nerve

This nerve acts with the assistance of trigeminial nerve and carries parasympathetic fibers to salivary glands in the mouth.

CN X Vagus Nerve

This nerve carries over 80% of the parasympathetic fibers and travels from brain stem to organs in the thoracic cavity and abdominal cavities.

Thoracolumbar Outflow

Sympathetic Nervous System aka ___________ outflow

Craniosacral Outflow

Parasympathetic Nervous System aka ___________ outflow

Paravertebral Ganglia

Sympathetic ganglia are located in:

Parasympathetic Ganglia

Ganglia located near target area

2 neurotransmitters of ANS

Acetycholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE) are:

Acetycholine

Neurotransmitter that is secreted from the nerve terminals of cholinergic fibers

Cholingergic fiber

A neuron that secretes acetycholine (ACh) as its neurotransmitter

Norepinephrine

A neurotrasnmitter secreted by the adrenergic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system; activates adrenergic receptors. AKA Noradrenaline

Norepinephrine

Noradrenaline aka

adrenergic fiber

A fiber that secretes NE (neorepinephrine) is called:

Cholinergic fiber

A fiber that secretes ACh (acetycholine) is called:

Preganlic fibers

These fibers secrete ACh & are cholinergic fibers

cholinergic fibers

Postganglionic fibers of the PARASYMPATHETIC nervous system secrete ACh and are called:

andrenergic fibers

Postganglionic fibers of the SYMPATHETIC nervous system secrete NE (norepinephrine) and are called:

ACh

This neurotransmitter is secreted by cholinergic fibers and diffuses to its receptor

norepinephrine (NE)

This neurotransmitter is secreted by adrenergic fibers and reabsorbed by adrenergic nerve terminals (reuptake)

Monoamine oxidase (MAO)

This enzyme degrades norepinephrine (NE) and is located in the adrenergic nerve terminal

Reuptake

Effects of SNS being prolonged are primarily due to the effects of being reabsorbedby adrenergic nerve terminals, the process is called:

acetylcholinesterase (AChE)

Effects of ACh are short lived by ACh being degraded in synapse by:

Monoamine Oxidase (MAO)

Enzyme that breaks down norepinephrine in CNS. This inhibiter drug prevents break down of NE & used in treatment of depression.

Receptor

Any side on cell to which a neurotransmitter binds, causing alteration in cell function

ANS receptor types

Cholinergic & Adrenergic Receptor

cholinergic receptor types

Muscarinic & Nicotinic Receptors

Muscarinic Receptors

Cholinergic receptor that is activated by acetylcholine; located primarily on the target organs of the parasympathetic organs

Nicotinic Receptors

type of receptor that is activated by ACh; located in the Autonomic ganglia & within the neuromuscular junction

Target organs

Muscarinic receptors are located on_________ in parasympathetic system.

Nicotinic-neural receptors (Nn)

Receptors located in ganglia of ANS, located in both para and sympathetic system. Responses difficult to predict

Nicotinic muscle receptors (Nm)

Nicotinic receptors located outside the ANS, on skeletal muscles in neuromuscular junction, causes skeletal muscle contraction

alpha & beta

Two main types of adrenergic receptors

Adrenergic receptors

Receptors located on target organs.

Andreginic receptors

Stimulation of sympathetic nervous system is caused by activation of these receptors:

B1

This receptor increases heart rate and strength of contraction

B2

This receptor dialates (increases) airflow

a1

This receptor dilates pupil (enlarges)

a1

This receptor constricts blood vessels

B2

This receptor relaxes uterus (helps stop premature delivery)

muscarinic

This receptor decreases heart rage

Muscarinic

This receptor constricts (lessons) air flow

Muscarinic

This receptor Constricts pupil (smaller)

Muscarinic

This receptor contracts bladder wall

Muscarinic

This receptor relaxes and opens sphinctor

alpha & beta

Andrenergic receptors are classified as:

dopamine receptors

type of Adrenergic Receptors located in blood vessels of kidney

agonist

Drug that directly activates receptors

Antagonist

blocker drug that prevents receptor activation

neurotransmitters

ACH & NE bind to receptors and are called:

2 types of autonmic receptors

(cholinergic) muscarinic and adrenergic receptors

Autonomic receptors

These receptors are located on target organs of sympathetic nervous system.

lying

this activates sympathetic system and causes phsiologic responses that are picked up on polygraph machine

bored

when you are _____ your pupils constrict.

excited

When you are _____ your pupils dilate

MS

a progressive demyelination of neurons and destruction of oligodendrocytes. Impairs sensory & motor activity

Peripheral neuropathy

Loss of sensation due to nerve damage, most severe in hands and feet. Usually caused by diabetes melitus

Poliomyelitis

A contagious infection that affects brain and spinal cord. Destroyes lower motor neurons in brain stem & spinal cord. Paralysis occurs

Sciatica

Form of neuritis characterized by shap pains along sciatic nerve and its branches. Pain usually radiates from buttocks into hip and thing areas

Shingles

aka herpes zoster. Acute inflamation of dorsal root ganglia. Related to chicken pox virus that lies dormant in nerves. Causes painful lesions along affected nerves.

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