Autonomic Nervous System
System that controls the organs, glands, cardiac muscle & smooth muscle. Two divisions: Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Nervous systems
Sympathetic & Parasympathetic
Two divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System are:
Involuntary Nervous System
Another name for Autonomic Nervous System
Visceral muscles are mediated by what system?
Reflexes that regulate organ functions are called:
Control of: Heart rate, blood pressure, body temp., digestion, airflow thru resp. passages, elimination and pupillary eye responses are controlled by what reflexes?
Autonomic Nervous System
Control of: Heart rate, blood pressure, body temp., digestion, airflow thru resp. passages, elimination and pupillary eye responses are controlled by what division of the Nervous System?
1. Activation of receptor 2. Transmission of sensory info to CNS 3. Processing of info by CNS 4. Motor response sent to effector Organ Is mediated by what reflex?
Blood pressure information is carried to THIS ORGAN by sensory nerves. This organ determines rate of blood pressure and signals heart & blood vessels to correct it. What organ is it?
Sympathetic & Parasympathetic System
Most organs receive fibers from what divisions of the Nervous system?
Term describing organs receiving fibers from both Sympathetic and Parasympathetic nervous system
Dual innervation of organs in the ANS have this effect:
Erectile activity in SNA & PNS are an example of this type of effect in the ANS
Organ that does NOT have dual innervation in ANS
This organ's diameter is increased by activity and decreased by inactivity of Sympathetic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System
A division of the autonomic nervous system that causes the "fight or flight" response
Sympathetic Nervous System
This system is activated during periods of stress or when a person feels threatened
Sympathetic Nervous System
This division of the nervous system is activated during times of stress and is short lived
Out of control sympathetic activity: elevates blood pressure, can cause stroke, stimulus needs to be removed. What is the term for this?
Feed & Breed
Parasympathetic Nervous System aka
Parasympathetic Nervous system
Division of the Autonomic nervous system that is concerened with feeding & breeding
Parasympathetic system is activated in situations that are hopeless where massive amounts of parasympthetics are discharged resulting in uncontrolled urination/defecation, heart rate decreasing severly (fainting) or bradying down. Term for this is:
Drug that causes similar effect to activation of sympathetic Nervous system (mimicking drug) Increases heart rate, force of cardiac contraction, blood pressure
lytic - meaning of
Drug that causes effects that are similar to a situation where SNS cannot be activated - Prevents. Prevents increase in cardiac activity when sympathetic nerves are fired
Causes effect similar to activation of the Parasympathetic nervous system. Decreases heart rate. Increases digestive activity.
Prevents activation of the Parasympathetic nervous system. If organ is being driven excessively by PNS, this drug blocks it.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
This system is most active during non stressfull conditions.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
This system plays an important role in digestion & reproduction.
Drug that blocks parasympathetic effect on heart; allowing heart rate to increase. It is a parasympatholytic druge.
When sympathetics & parasympathetics are active at the same time. Creates background (continuous low level) firing of ANS. it is called this kind of "tone".
Parasympathetics are stronger when in this state. Heart rate approx 72 Beats per minute during this state.
When sympathetic nerves fire more intensely, the Para activity does what?
When the Sympathetic nerves are relaxing the Para activity does what?
Hypothalamus & parts of brain stem
Balance in the Autonomic Nervous system is maintained by what 2 structures (or organs)?
Sympathetically induced continous state of blood vessel constriction.
Loss of this "tone" can dangerously lower blood pressure, plunging person into a lethal shock.
Pathways of ANS use how many neurons with a ganglion between each one
Brain or spinal cord (CNS)
The CELL BODY of neuron #1 (of2) in the pathway of ANS is located where?
Axon of Neuron #1 (of 2) in the pathway of ANS leaves the CNS & extends to the ________ (cell body) of Neuron #2
Axon of neuron #2 (0f 2) leaves ganglion and extends to the what?
Pathway of ANS
1) Axon of neuron #1 leaves CNS 2) Extends to ganglion (cell body of neuron #2). 3) Axon of neuron #2 leaves ganglion & extends to the organ. This is called:
A neuron that transmits actionpotential from a ganglion to a distal target organ
A neuron that transmits action potential from the Central Nervous system to a ganglion.
These fibers of the Sympathetic & Parasympathetic nervous system secrete different neurotransmitters and account for different effects on each system.
Sympathetic nerve activity; "flight or flight" is called this kind of "outflow"
Neurons of SNS leave the Spinal cord at Thoracic & Lumbar levels (T-1 to L-2) and is called this kind of outflow:
Most of these fibers travel a short distance and synapse within glanglia close to the spinal cord.
These ganglia form a chain that runs alongside the vertebral column.
The chain of sympathetic ganglia that run alonside the vertebral column are called sympathetic chain ganglia or what?
these fibers leave the ganglia and extend to various organs
These ganglia form a site where each preganglanic fiber synapses w/multiple postganglionic fibers
Firing of a single sympathetic neuron is capable of providing a _______sympathetic response. Many organs respond.
This organ acts as a modified sympathetic ganglion.
Preganglionic sympathetic fibers supply the Adrenal Medulla and cause it to:
Epinephrine & norepinephrine are secreted by the:
_______and norepinephrine are secreted by the adrenal medulla
_______ and epinephrine are secreted by the adrenal medulla
epinephrine & norepinephrine
these hormones resemble neurotransmitters of SNS and circulate in the blood
hormone produced by the adrenal gland, secreted when SNS is stimulated (stress). Responsible for maintaining blood pressure & cardiac output, keeping airways open wide and raising blood sugar levels.
Hormone produced by adrenal medulla, similar in chemical properties to epinephrine, but chiefly a vasoconstrictor with little effect on cardiac output.
SNS & adrenal medulla
these two function together for a sustained response
Parasympathetic activity. Neurons of Para NS leave CNS at level of brain stem & sacrum S-2 to S4
These nerves do NOT have a chain of ganglia running along the spinal cord because they are located close to the target organ.
these fibers are long because because the ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system are located near the target organ
These fibers are short and run from the ganglia to the smooth muscle or glands within the organ
This activity generates a more localized response because of the location of the ganglia close to the target organs.
These fibers travel from the brain stem with 4 cranial nerves
These fibers travel from the brain stem with 4 cranial nerves. CN-III - Oculomotor. CN-VII - facial. CNIX - glossopharangeal. CN-X - Vagus
CN III Oculomotor Nerve
This nerve innervates most of extrinsic eye muscles that move eye and travels with parasympathetic fibers to 2 extrinsic eye muscles, constrictor muscles (pupillary constriction) and Ciliary muscles (control shape of eye)
CN VII Facial Nerve
This nerve carries parasympathetic fibers to: tear glands (eyes), salivory glands (mouth) and Nasal glands (nose)
CN IX Glossopharyngeal Nerve
This nerve acts with the assistance of trigeminial nerve and carries parasympathetic fibers to salivary glands in the mouth.
CN X Vagus Nerve
This nerve carries over 80% of the parasympathetic fibers and travels from brain stem to organs in the thoracic cavity and abdominal cavities.
Sympathetic Nervous System aka ___________ outflow
Parasympathetic Nervous System aka ___________ outflow
Sympathetic ganglia are located in:
Ganglia located near target area
2 neurotransmitters of ANS
Acetycholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE) are:
Neurotransmitter that is secreted from the nerve terminals of cholinergic fibers
A neuron that secretes acetycholine (ACh) as its neurotransmitter
A neurotrasnmitter secreted by the adrenergic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system; activates adrenergic receptors. AKA Noradrenaline
A fiber that secretes NE (neorepinephrine) is called:
A fiber that secretes ACh (acetycholine) is called:
These fibers secrete ACh & are cholinergic fibers
Postganglionic fibers of the PARASYMPATHETIC nervous system secrete ACh and are called:
Postganglionic fibers of the SYMPATHETIC nervous system secrete NE (norepinephrine) and are called:
This neurotransmitter is secreted by cholinergic fibers and diffuses to its receptor
This neurotransmitter is secreted by adrenergic fibers and reabsorbed by adrenergic nerve terminals (reuptake)
Monoamine oxidase (MAO)
This enzyme degrades norepinephrine (NE) and is located in the adrenergic nerve terminal
Effects of SNS being prolonged are primarily due to the effects of being reabsorbedby adrenergic nerve terminals, the process is called:
Effects of ACh are short lived by ACh being degraded in synapse by:
Monoamine Oxidase (MAO)
Enzyme that breaks down norepinephrine in CNS. This inhibiter drug prevents break down of NE & used in treatment of depression.
Any side on cell to which a neurotransmitter binds, causing alteration in cell function
ANS receptor types
Cholinergic & Adrenergic Receptor
cholinergic receptor types
Muscarinic & Nicotinic Receptors
Cholinergic receptor that is activated by acetylcholine; located primarily on the target organs of the parasympathetic organs
type of receptor that is activated by ACh; located in the Autonomic ganglia & within the neuromuscular junction
Muscarinic receptors are located on_________ in parasympathetic system.
Nicotinic-neural receptors (Nn)
Receptors located in ganglia of ANS, located in both para and sympathetic system. Responses difficult to predict
Nicotinic muscle receptors (Nm)
Nicotinic receptors located outside the ANS, on skeletal muscles in neuromuscular junction, causes skeletal muscle contraction
alpha & beta
Two main types of adrenergic receptors
Receptors located on target organs.
Stimulation of sympathetic nervous system is caused by activation of these receptors:
This receptor increases heart rate and strength of contraction
This receptor dialates (increases) airflow
This receptor dilates pupil (enlarges)
This receptor constricts blood vessels
This receptor relaxes uterus (helps stop premature delivery)
This receptor decreases heart rage
This receptor constricts (lessons) air flow
This receptor Constricts pupil (smaller)
This receptor contracts bladder wall
This receptor relaxes and opens sphinctor
alpha & beta
Andrenergic receptors are classified as:
type of Adrenergic Receptors located in blood vessels of kidney
Drug that directly activates receptors
blocker drug that prevents receptor activation
ACH & NE bind to receptors and are called:
2 types of autonmic receptors
(cholinergic) muscarinic and adrenergic receptors
These receptors are located on target organs of sympathetic nervous system.
this activates sympathetic system and causes phsiologic responses that are picked up on polygraph machine
when you are _____ your pupils constrict.
When you are _____ your pupils dilate
a progressive demyelination of neurons and destruction of oligodendrocytes. Impairs sensory & motor activity
Loss of sensation due to nerve damage, most severe in hands and feet. Usually caused by diabetes melitus
A contagious infection that affects brain and spinal cord. Destroyes lower motor neurons in brain stem & spinal cord. Paralysis occurs
Form of neuritis characterized by shap pains along sciatic nerve and its branches. Pain usually radiates from buttocks into hip and thing areas
aka herpes zoster. Acute inflamation of dorsal root ganglia. Related to chicken pox virus that lies dormant in nerves. Causes painful lesions along affected nerves.