Sociology Exam 2

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Philip Zimbardo's study of a simulated prison environment that used college students as prisoners and prison guards

indicated that it is impossible to replicate a "real life" situation in a laboratory.
demonstrated that a social structure can influence the type of social interactions that occur.
indicated that social interactions are not influenced by social structure characteristics.
all of these

demonstrated that a social structure can influence the type of social interactions that occur.

Which of the following is an example of social interaction?
Felipe watches television and does needlepoint.
Mary wallpapers her bedroom walls.
Sally and Veronica, a lesbian couple, argue about a new piece of gay-rights legislation.
all of these

Sally and Veronica, a lesbian couple, argue about a new piece of gay-rights legislation.

Which of the following terms refers to the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships?
socialization
social structure
social interaction
culture

Social structure

Which of the following is true regarding marriage in Japan?
most husbands do not call their wife by name
husbands say "I love you" more often than other nationalities
most married Japanese couples do not actually love one another
marriage is considered more a relationship than a social status

most husbands do not call their wife by name

The analysis of how the "definition of the situation" can mold the thinking and personality of the individual is associated with the
functionalist perspective.
conflict perspective.
interactionist perspective.
feminist perspective.

Interactionist perspective

Which term is used by sociologists to refer to any of the full range of socially defined positions within a large group or society?
status
culture
social structure
Gemeinschaft

status

Which sociological perspective(s) is (are) especially interested in ascribed statuses, because they often confer privileges or reflect a person's membership in a subordinate group?
functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
global perspective

conflict perspective

A master status is a
term used by sociologists to refer to any of the full range of socially defined positions within a large group or society.
social position attained by a person largely through his or her own efforts.
status that dominates others and thereby determines a person's general position within society.
series of social relationships linking a person directly to others and therefore indirectly to still more people.

status that dominates others and thereby determines a person's general position within society.

A(an) __________ is any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who regularly and consciously interact.
group
negotiation team
organic solidarity
aggregate

group

Functional prerequisites are
tasks that a society or relatively permanent group must accomplish if it is to survive.
organized patterns of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs.
social relationships that link a person directly to others and therefore indirectly to still more people.
attempts to reach agreement with others concerning some objective.

tasks that a society or relatively permanent group must accomplish if it is to survive.

The conflict view holds that social institutions
maintain the privileges of the powerful individuals and groups within a society.
preserve order and equality.
train personnel equitably.
provide and maintain a sense of basic fairness.

maintain the privileges of the powerful individuals and groups within a society.

Émile Durkheim suggested that as a society becomes more complex, the nature of solidarity becomes more
mechanical.
organic.
preservationist.
institutionalized.

organic

In Gerhard Lenski's view, societal organization is highly dependent on its level of
farming.
education.
technology.
banking.

technology

An analysis of sociocultural evolution that distinguishes between preindustrial and industrial societies was developed by
Ferdinand Tönnies.
Gerhard Lenski.
Jonathan Kozol.
William I. Thomas.

Lenski

Which of the following can be defined as the long-term trends in societies resulting from the interplay of continuity, innovation, and selection?
postmodernism
negotiated order
industrialization
sociocultural evolution

Sociocultural evolution

A preindustrial society in which people rely on whatever foods and fibers are readily available in order to live is called a(an)
agrarian society.
hunting-and-gathering society.
horticultural society.
slash-and-burn farming society.

hunting-and-gathering society.

The industrial revolution, pushing societies from agrarian-based economies to those dependent on mechanization first appeared when?
1910-1940
1870-1905
1835-1870
1760-1850

1760-1850

Which of the following is characteristic of the emergence of industrial societies?
Families and communities could not continue to function as self-sufficient units.
Individuals, villages, and regions began to exchange goods and services and become interdependent.
Formal educational institutions developed.
all of these

all of these

A society whose economic system is engaged in the processing and control of information is called a(an)
industrial society.
postmodern society.
postindustrial society.
agrarian society.

postindustrial society.

A society that is primarily concerned with providing services rather than manufacturing goods is a(an)
preindustrial society.
postindustrial society.
industrial society.
postmodern society

postindustrial society.

A technologically sophisticated society that is preoccupied with consumer goods and media images is called a(an)
preindustrial society.
industrial society.
postindustrial society.
postmodern society.

postmodern society

A primary group is a small group that is
characterized by impersonality, with little intimacy or mutual understanding.
characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation.
used as a standard for evaluating oneself and one's behavior.
characterized by impersonality and face-to-face associations.

characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation.

Which type of group is most important for socialization?
primary groups
coalitions
out groups
all of these

primary groups

The distintion between "in-groups" and "out-groups" was first made by
Erving Goffman.
Philip Zimbardo.
William Graham Sumner.
Charles Horton Cooley.

William Graham Sumner.

Which term is used to refer to a formal, impersonal group in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding?
primary group
secondary group
tertiary group
reference group

secondary

Which sociological perspective would be most likely to emphasize that "we" and "they" feelings promote in-group solidarity and a sense of belonging?
functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

functionalist perspective

Any group or category to which people feel they belong is called a(an)
dyad.
triad.
in-group.
out-group.

in-group

Which sociological perspective would emphasize the role of reference groups in setting and enforcing standards of conduct and belief?
functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

functionalist

Reference group is a term used by sociologists when speaking of any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior.
True
False

True

Formal organizations may vary in
size.
degree of efficiency.
specificity of goals.
all of these

all of these

Which one of the following ascribed statuses influences people's self-images within formal organizations?
gender
college education
job skills
all of the above

gender

By working at a specific task, people are more likely to become highly skilled and carry out a job with maximum efficiency. This is the rationale for the bureaucratic characteristic of
employment based on technical qualifications.
hierarchy of authority.
division of labor.
written rules and regulations.

divisions of labor

Which sociological perspective might observe the division of labor among the staff members in a hospital emergency room and focus on how the allocation of responsibilities affects their relationships with one another?
functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
global perspective

interactionist perspective

Bureaucratization is
an element or process of society that may disrupt a social system or lead to a decrease in stability.
organized patterns of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs.
the process by which a group, organization, or social movement becomes increasingly bureaucratic.
the process through which an organization identifies an entirely new objective because its traditional goals have been either realized or denied.

the process by which a group, organization, or social movement becomes increasingly bureaucratic.

The "iron law of oligarchy" is a principle
of organizational life according to which even democratic organizations will become bureaucracies ruled by a few individuals.
under which organizations are established on the basis of common interests.
of organizational life according to which each individual in a hierarchy tends to rise to his or her level of incompetence.
none of these

of organizational life according to which even democratic organizations will become bureaucracies ruled by a few individuals.

An ideal type is a construct or model that serves as a measuring rod against which specific cases can be evaluated.
True
False

True

Which one of the following would be an example of a negative consequence of bureaucratization?
the Peter principle
employees deprived of a voice in decision making
the stifling of initiative and imagination
all of these

all of these

Which of the following terms is used by sociologists to refer to print and electronic means of communication that carry messages to widespread audiences?
transmitters
opinion leaders
mass media
narcotizers

mass media

What term do we use to refer to the flow of content across multiple media and the accompanying migration of media audiences?
cultural convergence
digital divide
culture gap
information superhighway

cultural convergence

Which of the following would be an example of cyberbullying?
sending a photo of a friend drunk to others
sending a photo of a friend cheating to others
sending a nude photo of a friend to others
all of these

all of these

Which sociological perspective would be most likely to focus on the functions of the mass media in conferring status on people, organizations, and public issues?
functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

functionalist

Which of the following is a socially constructed entity?
Hallmark
Polaroid
Disney
all of these

all of these

Which sociological perspective would likely contend that the role of the mass media is to provide socialization, enforce social norms through public events, and create social stability and cohesion through collective experiences?
functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

functionalist perspective

A dysfunction of media promotion of product consumption would be
creating realistic behavior.
raising unrealistic expectations.
notifying consumers of sales events.
increasing awareness of environmental issues.

raising unrealistic expectations.

Which of the following have sociologists suggested is a dysfunction of the mass media?
conferring status
having a narcotizing effect
integration of a common view
providing a collective experience

having a narcotizing effect

Which sociological perspective(s) would be most likely to emphasize that the mass media exacerbate many divisions in our society, including those based on gender, race, ethnicity, and social class?
functionalist perspective
conflict and feminist perspectives
interactionist perspective
global perspective

conflict and feminist perspectives

Which sociological perspective(s) would be most likely to focus on gatekeeping as a process that reflects a desire to maximize profits by those with power and authority?
functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
global perspective

conflict

Which sociological perspective is more likely to study the media's influence on society from the microlevel to determine how social behavior is shaped?
functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

Interactionist

Which sociological perspective would most likely be concerned with manipulation of "photo ops" to create an image of self-serving reality?
functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

interactionist perspective

Among the major sociological perspectives of functionalism, conflict theory, interactionism, and the feminist perspective, conflict theorists would be most likely to suggest that the mass media serve a useful function in society by bringing members together in a collective experience.
True
False

false

Which of the following terms is used by sociologists to refer to print and electronic means of communication that carry messages to widespread audiences?
transmitters
opinion leaders
mass media
narcotizers

mass media

A person who influences the opinions and decisions of others through day-to-day personal contact and communication is referred to as a(an)
gatekeeper.
opinion leader.
specialist.
concentrator.

opinion leader

Deviance is behavior that
always violates the laws of a society.
is always illegal.
violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society.
is always anomic.

violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society.

Which of the following statements is true relative to stigma and deviance in the U.S.?
Many people with "normal" appearance have cosmetic surgery each year because of the "beauty myth".
People may be stigmatized for deviant behaviors in which they no longer engage.
A person need not be guilty of a crime to be stigmatized.
all of these

all of these

Which sociological perspective would most likely be concerned with the stigmatizing nature of formal social controls that require convicted sex-offenders to register with police agencies and have their pictures published in newspapers to make their identities publicly known?
functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
global perspective

interactionist perspective

"Deviance defines the limits of proper behavior". This statement represents the view of which sociological perspective?
functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

functionalist perspective

In Émile Durkheim's view
the punishments established within a culture help to define acceptable behavior and thus contribute to social stability.
labeling an individual is the most crucial stage in that person becoming a deviant.
people accept or reject the goals of a society and/or the socially approved means to fulfill their aspirations.
the punishments established within a culture help define acceptable behavior AND people accept or reject the goals of a society.

the punishments established within a culture help to define acceptable behavior and thus contribute to social stability.

Which sociological perspective's approach to deviance focuses on why rule violation continues to exist in societies despite pressures to conform and obey?
functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

functionalist perspective

Which of the following is a criticism of social disorganization theory?
too much focus on larger forces
seems to "blame the victim"
critics feel there are no viable organizations
critics feel troubled areas are hopeless

seems to "blame the victim"

Which conflict sociologist argues that the criminal justice system serves the interests of the powerful and that lawmaking is often an attempt by the powerful to coerce others into their own morality?
Elliot Currie
Richard Quinney
Mark Warr
Kai Erikson

Richard Quinney

The term "social control" refers to
justifications for deviant behavior.
penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm.
techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society.
behavior that violates the norms of a group.

techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society.

Which sociological perspective emphasizes that societies literally could not operate if massive numbers of people defied standards of appropriate conduct?
functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
labeling perspective

functionalist perspective

Obedience refers to
going along with one's peers, who have no special right to direct that person's behavior.
compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure.
penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm.
going along with one's peers, who have no special right to direct that person's behavior AND compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure.

compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure.

A college student interrupts the instructor during a seminar; the instructor responds with an angry glare. This is an example of
formal social control.
informal social control.
neutralization.
tenure.

informal social control

What type of informal social control is supported by 59 percent of pediatricians in spite of the risk of harmful effects to recipients?
capital punishment
institutionalization
spanking
time-outs

spanking

Which sociological perspective would most likely be concerned with the association between the use of surveillance techniques as a means of social control and the power of an authoritarian government?
functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

conflict perspective

Which of the following theories offers a view of conformity and deviance that suggests that our connection to members of society leads us to conform systematically to society's norms?
anomie theory of deviance
labeling theory
control theory
theory of differential association

control theory

Control theory states that we
are bonded to members of our subculture, and if they engage in deviant behavior, we use them as role models and act in the same manner.
are bonded to our family members, friends, and peers in a way that leads us to follow the mores and folkways of our society.
are "convinced" to act in a law-abiding manner because of the "control" that law enforcement agencies have over our lives.
act in a conforming manner because of self-control.

are bonded to our family members, friends, and peers in a way that leads us to follow the mores and folkways of our society.

A person convicted of a crime—even when prior arrest record and severity of the crime are taken into account—is more likely to receive a shorter prison sentence if he or she is
White and non-Hispanic.
Black.
Hispanic.
Asian or Native American.

White and non-Hispanic.

Which sociological perspective would be particularly concerned about studies that show that White criminal offenders receive shorter sentences than comparable Latino and African-American offenders?
functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

conflict perspective

An important tenet of labeling theory is the recognition that some individuals or groups have the power to define labels and apply them to others. This view shares the emphasis on the social significance of power as purported by the
functionalist perspective.
conflict perspective.
interactionist perspective.
global perspective.

conflict perspective

Crime is a violation of
criminal law for which formal penalties are applied by some governmental authority.
societal standards and is punished with informal sanctions.
criminal law that goes unnoticed by authorities.
folkways.

criminal law for which formal penalties are applied by some governmental authority.

A professional criminal is
an affluent individual who commits crimes in the course of daily business activities.
always a member of a highly structured criminal organization that is involved in smuggling, drug trafficking, prostitution, and gambling.
a person who pursues crime as a daily occupation, developing skilled techniques, and enjoying a degree of status among other criminals.
none of these

a person who pursues crime as a daily occupation, developing skilled techniques, and enjoying a degree of status among other criminals.

What term is used to refer to crimes committed by individuals in the course of their daily business activities?
professional crime
organized crime
index crimes
white-collar crimes

white-collar crimes

Which of the following is true of white-collar crime?
The offender is more likely to receive a prison sentence than a fine.
Conviction generally does not harm the person's reputation or career aspirations as much as conviction for a street crime would.
Most cases are heard in municipal courts.
all of these

Conviction generally does not harm the person's reputation or career aspirations as much as conviction for a street crime would.

Which type of crime is unlikely to be reported in victimization surveys?
fraud
burglary
motor vehicle theft
aggravated assault

fraud

The most frequently reported hate crimes were:
physical abuse and intimidation
vandalism and intimidation
rape and murder
murder and vandalism

vandalism and intimidation

A condition in which members of a society have different amounts of wealth, prestige, or power is called
socialization.
status.
social structure.
social inequality.

social inequality

Which of the following terms is used by sociologists to refer to a structured ranking of groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in society?
social mobility
stratification
hypergamy
status

stratification

An individual's salary and wages are referred to as
wealth.
income.
prosperity.
finances.

income

Wealth is
all of a person's material assets, including land, stocks, and other types of property.
salaries and wages.
a term used by Max Weber to refer to people who have a similar level of income and prestige.
a term used by Thorstein Veblen for people who have the same lifestyle, independent of their class position.

all of a person's material assets, including land, stocks, and other types of property.

An ascribed status is a social position
attained by a person largely through his or her own effort.
assigned to a person without regard to the person's unique characteristics or talents.
based solely on income and wealth.
based solely on lifestyle.

assigned to a person without regard to the person's unique characteristics or talents.

Achieved status is a social position
attained by a person largely through his or her own efforts.
assigned to a person by peers, without regard to the person's unique talents or characteristics.
assigned to an individual at birth.
given to an individual based upon his or her age, race, or gender.

attained by a person largely through his or her own efforts.

A system of enforced servitude in which people are legally owned by others is known as
feudalism.
slavery.
communism.
a caste system.

slavery.

Which of the following terms is used to refer to hereditary systems of rank that are relatively fixed, immobile, and generally religiously dictated?
tenure
slavery
castes
feudalism

castes

A class system employs a social ranking based primarily on
age.
caste.
economic position.
religious and ethnic background.

economic position.

A woman is born into a homeless, single-parent family. She is very talented and as an adult, becomes a wealthy, world-acclaimed pianist. This scenario most closely represents which type of stratification system?
caste
class
estate
slavery

class

A disproportional percentage of which group falls in the upper class?
White, non-hispanic
White, hispanic
Non-white, non-hispanic
Non-white, hispanic

White, non-hispanic

Karl Marx argued that social, economic, and political inequalities are dependent on
class differentiation.
achieved status.
the Protestant work ethic.
religious factors.

class differentiation.

Capitalism is an economic system in which
the means of production and distribution are collectively owned.
all property is communally owned and no social distinctions are made on the basis of people's ability to produce.
the means of production are largely in private hands, and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profit.
none of these

the means of production are largely in private hands, and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profit.

Karl Marx used the concept of class consciousness to refer to
an attitude held by members of a class that does not accurately reflect its objective position.
the reputation that a particular individual has within an occupation.
a subjective awareness held by members of a class regarding their common vested interests and the need for collective political action to bring about social change.
the respect and admiration with which an occupation is regarded by society.

a subjective awareness held by members of a class regarding their common vested interests and the need for collective political action to bring about social change.

Max Weber uses the term "class" to refer to people who share a similar level of
culture.
wealth and income.
power.
esteem.

wealth and income.

Which of the following did Max Weber suggest were analytically distinct components of stratification?
conformity, deviance, and social control
class, status, and power
class, caste, and age
class, prestige, and esteem

class, status, and power

A status group refers to
people who share a similar level of wealth and income.
people who share the same prestige or lifestyle, independent of their class position.
members of a class who have a subjective awareness regarding their common vested interests and need for collective political action to bring about social change.
a feudal class.

people who share the same prestige or lifestyle, independent of their class position.

What term did Thorstein Veblen use to describe the behavior of those at the top of the social hierarchy when they engage in such activities as jetting off to a remote destination for dinner?
consumption flow
inconspicuous ridicule
conspicuous leisure
consumptive frivolity

conspicuous leisure

Which sociological perspective would be most likely to argue that most talented people would not go to school for many years to become biochemists if they could make as much money and gain as much respect working as elevator operators?
functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

functionalist perspective

Which sociological perspective argues that competition for scarce resources results in significant political, economic, and social inequality?
functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

conflict perspective

Which of the following notes that while a system of rewards for filling highly expert professions demanding long years of education and skill may have once served the overall purposes of society, this situation no longer exists?
Gerhard Lenski
Ralf Dahrendorf
D. Stanley Eitzen
David Featherman

Gerhard Lenski

The objective method of assessing social class assigns individuals to classes on the basis of
criteria such as occupation, education, income, and place of residence.
self-assessment.
assessments by friends and colleagues.
the neighborhoods in which they reside.

criteria such as occupation, education, income, and place of residence.

Prestige refers to the
reputation that a particular individual has within an occupation.
ability to exercise one's will over others.
respect and admiration with which an occupation is regarded by society.
people who have similar levels of wealth and income.

respect and admiration with which an occupation is regarded by society.

Inequality exists in:
All societies
Western societies only
Developed societies only
Developing societies only

all societies

Which sociological perspective would be most likely to suggest that studies of social class have tended to neglect the occupations and incomes of women as determinants of social rank, thereby elevating the status of males?
functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

feminist perspective

Which of the following would be the best example of absolute poverty?
A homeless man in tattered clothes begs in the streets for money and food.
A dual-career couple lives in a suburban community and struggles to pay their monthly bills.
A family owns only two luxury automobiles, although their friends and neighbors own three such vehicles.
none of these

A homeless man in tattered clothes begs in the streets for money and food.

Which of the following would be seen as a contributer to poverty in the U.S. according to your text?
Large numbers of workers employed at minimum wage.
Large numbers of people who wish to stay poor
Large numbers of CEOs
Large numbers of technologically savvy workers

Large numbers of workers employed at minimum wage.

The commonly used "poverty line" measure of poverty used by the federal government is used to measure which type of poverty?
relative poverty
absolute poverty
elementary poverty
dramatic poverty

absolute poverty

The fact that an unemployed coal miner in Appalachia has a higher standard of living than a doctor in Congo, illustrates the idea that
poverty is absolute.
poverty is relative.
being a doctor is not a high-prestige occupation in all countries.
Americans are ethnocentric.

poverty is relative.

Which of the following groups experiences the highest levels of chronic poverty?
African Americans
Hispanics
Asian Americans
Whites

African American

Max Weber referred to people's opportunities to provide themselves with material goods, positive living conditions, and favorable experiences as
power.
wealth.
life chances.
status.

Life chances

Which sociological perspective would be most likely to emphasize that a person's health and educational opportunities are affected by his or her class position in important ways?
functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
global perspective

conflict perspective

Which of the following would be the best example of absolute poverty?
A homeless man in tattered clothes begs in the streets for money and food.
A dual-career couple lives in a suburban community and struggles to pay their monthly bills.
A family owns only two luxury automobiles, although their friends and neighbors own three such vehicles.
none of these

A homeless man in tattered clothes begs in the streets for money and food.

Which of the following would be seen as a contributer to poverty in the U.S. according to your text?
Large numbers of workers employed at minimum wage.
Large numbers of people who wish to stay poor
Large numbers of CEOs
Large numbers of technologically savvy workers

Large numbers of workers employed at minimum wage.

The commonly used "poverty line" measure of poverty used by the federal government is used to measure which type of poverty?
relative poverty
absolute poverty
elementary poverty
dramatic poverty

absolute poverty

Employment that is poorly paid and from the worker's perspective, insecure and unprotected is called
Pink collar work
White collar work
Hard word
Precarious work

Precarious work

A stratification system that implies that the position of each individual is influenced by the person's achieved status is referred to as a(an)
open stratification system.
closed stratification system.
egalitarian class system.
fractured class system.

open stratification system.

Some analysts suggest that inner-city riots have frequently occurred when poor people realize that their chances of climbing out of poverty are unlikely, because of the structure of our social system. Their frustration is based on their perception that they are living in a(an)
open stratification system.
closed stratification system.
egalitarian class system.
fractured class system.

closed stratification system.

Which of the following is an example of vertical mobility?
A person loses her job as a corporate vice president because of downsizing and remains unemployed for 14 months.
An African president is overthrown in a bloodless coup and flees to a neighboring country where he works as a farmer.
A National Football League star suffers a career-ending injury and gets a job as an auto mechanic.
all of these

all of these

A woman who was born and raised in a poor family becomes a regional supervisor for the U.S. Postal Service. She has experienced
structural mobility.
horizontal mobility.
upward intergenerational mobility.
institutional mobility.

upward intergenerational mobility.

Research concerning the degree of social mobility within the occupational structure of the U.S. indicates that
occupational mobility has been common among males.
much of the social mobility in the U.S. covers a very "great distance".
occupational mobility among African Americans is no longer sharply limited by racial discrimination.
all of these

occupational mobility has been common among males.

According the Schaefer text, which level of college degree serves as less of a guarantee of upward mobility today than it did in the past?
A.A./A.A.S.
B.A./B.S.
M.A./M.S.
Ph.D.

B.A./B.S.

Which sociological perspective would most likely urge policy makers and the general public to look closely at corporate tax breaks, rather than focusing on the allowances given to welfare mothers and their children?
functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
global perspective

conflict perspective

Nearly 60 percent of adults who remain on welfare are not in school or enrolled in welfare-to-work programs due to their usually facing
substance abuse.
mental illness.
a criminal record.
all of these

all of these

The recent bail out of the automobile industry would be an exam ple of which of the following:
Consumption flow
Corporate welfare
Corporate gains
Business welfare

Corporate welfare

Corporate welfare gives big business tax breaks and direct payments.
True
False

True

The wealth of the top 1 percent exceeds the collective wealth of the bottom 90 percent.
True
False

True

Extreme inequality of resources in the world was initiated by
the Industrial Revolution.
the Spanish-American War.
the Great Depression.
World War II.

the Industrial Revolution.

Which of the following is more prevalent in developing nations than in industrialized nations?
rural population
deaths of children
total population
all of these

all of these

Which of the following is more prevalent in developing nations than in industrialized nations?
exports
population
carbon dioxide emissions
income

population

Industrialized nations have have high _____________ and low ______________.
infant mortality; military spending
rural populations; income
military spending; infant mortality
birthrates; health spending

military spending; infant mortality

Developing nations have high ____ and low _________________.
health spending; military spending
rural populations; birth rates
exports; burden of disease
birthrates; health spending

birthrates; health spending

Colonialism is defined as
the maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural dominance over a people by a foreign power for an extended period.
an approach which contends that industrialized nations continue to exploit developing countries for their own gain.
the far-reaching process by which peripheral nations move from traditional or less developed institutions to those characteristic of more developed societies.
none of these

the maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural dominance over a people by a foreign power for an extended period.

The maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural dominance over a people by a foreign power for an extended period is known as
dependency.
neocolonialism.
colonialism.
modernization.

colonialism.

The continuing dependence of former colonies on foreign countries is called
neocolonialism.
colonialism.
a world system.
recolonization.

neocolonialism.

Neocolonialism is defined as
the maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural domination over a people by a power for an extended period of time, such as French control over major parts of northern Africa.
the continuing dependence of former colonies on foreign countries.
the invasion of Third World countries by the military forces of the U.S or Russia since 1965.
all of these

the continuing dependence of former colonies on foreign countries.

Dependency theory is defined as
a functionalist approach proposing that modernization and development will gradually improve the lives of people in peripheral nations.
a far-reaching process by which peripheral nations move from having traditional or less developed institutions to those characteristic of more developed societies.
an approach which contends that as developing countries make economic advances, they remain weak and subservient to core nations.
applying to the interactionist perspective.

an approach which contends that as developing countries make economic advances, they remain weak and subservient to core nations.

When viewing the global economic system, sociologist Immanuel Wallerstein draws on the
functionalist perspective.
conflict perspective.
interactionist perspective.
dialectical perspective.

conflict perspective

Which sociological perspective would most likely compare the relationship between a colonial nation and the colonized people to the relationship between the dominant capitalist class and the proletariat class?
functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
global perspective

conflict perspective

According to the functionalist perspective, multinational corporations can actually help developing nations because
multinationals bring jobs to the area.
multinationals promote diffusion of inventions and innovations from industrialized nations.
cheap labor is ideal for a global enterprise.
all of these

all of these

Conflict theorists contend that multinational corporations are attracted to developing countries because developing countries
have a large pool of cheap labor.
discourage strong trade unions.
often create a favorable "climate for investment".
all of these

all of these

The goal of the United Nations is to eliminate extreme poverty in the world by the year
2010.
2015.
2025.
3040.

2015

Modernization refers to the
elimination of old housing and its replacement with modern skyscrapers.
process by which a society moves from traditional or less developed institutions to those characteristic of more developed societies.
colonial domination of Third World nations by Western powers.
process of development that, at this time, has occurred in only core nations such as England, France, Japan, and the U.S.

process by which a society moves from traditional or less developed institutions to those characteristic of more developed societies.

The process by which a society moves from traditional or less developed institutions to those characteristic of more developed societies is called
world systems analysis.
developmental theory.
reconstructionism.
modernization.

modernization

Which of the following is not a goal of the U.N.'s Millennium Project?
to reduce child mortality
to empower women
to achieve universal primary education
to improve maternal health

to achieve universal primary education

Worldwide, what percentage of adults own more than half of the entire world's household wealth?
2%
7%
13%
27%

2%

Which of the following statements about the patterns of intergenerational mobility in industrial nations is true?
Structural factors influence the opportunities for social mobility.
Immigration does not play a significant part in mobility patterns.
There is consistent migration from urban to rural areas.
Most women resist mobility.

Structural factors influence the opportunities for social mobility.

Cross-cultural studies have suggested which of the following about industrialized and developing nations?
Spain has an informal economy.
Intergenerational mobility is increasing in most countries.
Modernization has benefited Kenya.
Mobility exists only in nonindustrialized societies.

Intergenerational mobility is increasing in most countries.

In large developing nations, the most socially significant mobility is
the movement out of poverty.
the employment of women.
property ownership.
proof of a confirmed dowry.

the movement out of poverty.

For the most part, the impact of modernization in developing countries has
not had a necessarily positive effect on the social standing of women.
increased the vital role of women in food production.
strengthened women's ties to relatives.
all of these

not had a necessarily positive effect on the social standing of women.

Trade barriers between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico were dismantled as a result of
NAFTA.
the Zapatista revolution of 1910.
the collapse of the National Liberation Army in 1966.
the demise of the peso.

NAFTA

Which sociological perspective would be likely to suggest that the existence of unregulated maquiladoras in Mexico has led to the exploitation of workers with jobs that lack security, possibilities for advancement, and decent wages?
functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
global perspective

conflict perspective

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