Psych GRE people and terms

130 terms by aheberle

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Useful terms and famous psychologists for the Psychology GRE subject test.

Aronson and Linder

proposed the gain-loss principle (an evaluation that changes will have more effect than an evaluation that remains constant

Asch

studied conformity by asking subjects to compare the lengths of lines

Bem

developed self-perception theory as an alternative to cognitive-dissonance theory; suggested that masculinity and femininity were two separate dimensions; linked with concept of androgyny

clark and clark

performed a famous study on doll preferences in African American children

Darley and Latane

proposed that there were two factors that could lead to non-helping: social influence and diffusion of responsibility

Eagly

suggested that gender differences in conformity were not due to gender, per se, but to differing social roles

Festinger

developed cognitive dissonance theory; also developed social comparison theory

Hall

studied norms for interpersonal distance in interpersonal interactions

Heider

developed balance theory to explain why attitudes change; also developed attribution theory and divided attributions into two categories: dispositional and situational

Hovland

studied attitude change

Janis

developed the concept of groupthink to explain how group decision making can sometimes go awry

Lerner

proposed the concept of belief in a just world

Lewin

divided leadership styles into three categories: autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire

McGuire

studied how psychological inoculation could help people resist persuasion

Milgram

studied obedience by asking subjects to administer electroshock; also proposed stimulus-overload theory to explain differences between city and country dwellers

Newcomb

studied political norms

Petty and Cacioppo

developed elaboration likelihood model of persuasion

schachter

studied relationship between anxiety and the need for affiliation

Sherif

used the autokinetic effect to study conformity; also performed the Robber's Cave experiment

Zajonc

studied the mere exposure effect; also resolved problems with the social facilitation effect by suggesting that the presence of others enhances the emission of dominant responses and impairs the emission of nondominant responses

Zimbardo

performed prison simulation and used concept of deindividuation to explain results

Ainsworth

devised the "strange situation" to study attachment

Baumrind

studied the relationship between parental style and aggression

Bowlby

studied attachment in children

Chomsky

linguist who suggested that children have an innate capacity for language acquisition; distinguished between the surface structure and deep structure of a sentence; studied transformational rules that could be used to transform one sentence into another

Erikson

outlined the eight stages of psychosocial development covering the entire lifespan

Freud

outlined five stages of psychosexual development

Gesell

believed that development was due primarily to maturation

Gilligan

suggested that males and females have different orientations toward morality

Hall

founder of developmental psychology

Harlow

used monkeys and surrogate mothers to study the role of contact comfort in bond formation

Kohlberg

studied moral development using moral dilemmas

Locke

believed in the blank slate

Lorenz

studied imprinting in birds

Piaget

outlined four stages of cognitive development

Rousseau

French philosopher who suggested that development could unfold without help from society

Terman

performed a longitudinal study on gifted children

Tyron

studied the genetic basis of maze-running ability in rats

Vygotsky

studied cognitive development; stressed the importance of the zone of proximal development

Adler

psychodynamic theorist best known for the concept of the inferiority complex

Allport

trait theorist known for the concept of functional autonomy; also distinguished between idiographic and nomothetic approaches to personality

Bandura

behaviorist theorist known for his social learning theory; did modeling experiment using "Bobo" doll; studied observational learning

Cattell

trait theorist who used factor analysis to study personality

Dollard and Miller

behaviorist theorists who attempted to study psychoanalytic concepts within a behaviorist framework

Eysenck

trait theorist who proposed two main dimensions on which human personalities differ: introversion-extroversion and emotional stability-neuroticism

Horney

Psychodynamic theorist who suggested there were three ways to relate to others: moving toward, moving against, moving away from

Jung

talked about the collective unconscious

Kelly

based personality theory on the notion of "individual as scientist"

Kerberg

object-relations theorist

Klein

object-relations theorist

Lewin

phenomenological personality theorist who developed field theory

Mahler

object-relations theorist

Maslow

Phenomenological personality theorist known for hierarchy of needs and self-actualization

McClelland

studied the need for achievement (nAch)

Mischel

critic of trait theories of personality

Rogers

phenomenological personality theorist; developed client-centered therapy, based on the concept of unconditional positive regard

Rotter

studied locus of control

Sheldon

attempted to relate somatotype to personality type

Skinner

behaviorist; developed principles of operant conditioning

Winnicott

object-relations theorist

Witkin

studied field-dependence and field-independence using the rod and frame test

Beck

CBT therapist known for his therapy for depression

Bleuler

coined the term schizophrenia

Dix

19th century American advocate of asylum reform

Ellis

CBT therapist known for his rational-emotive therapy (RET)

Kraepelin

developed a system in the 19th century for classifying mental disorders

Pinel

reformed French asylums in the 18th century

Rosenhan

investigated the effect of being labeled mentally ill by having pseudopatients admitted into mental hospitals

Seligman

formulated the learned helplessness theory of depression

Szasz

suggested that most of the mental disorders treated by clinicians are not real disorders

Broca

French anatomist who identified the part of the brain primarily associated with producing spoken language

Cannon

physiologist who studied the autonomic nervous system, including "fight or flight" reactions; investigated homeostasis; and with Bard proposed the Cannon-Bard theory of emotions

Kandel

demonstrated that simple learning behavior in sea snails is associated with changes in neurotransmission

James and Lange

proposed the James-Lange theory of emotions

Kluver and Bucy

studied loss of normal fear and rage reactions in monkeys resulting from damage to temporal lobes; also studied the amygdala's role in emotions

Luria

studied how brain damage leads to impairment in sensory, motor, and language functions

Milner

studied H.M.

Olds and Milner, P.

demonstrated the existence of the pleasure center in the brain using self-stimulation studies in rats

Penfield

mapped out different parts of the brain during surgery

Schacter and Singer

proposed the Schachter-Singer theory of emotions

Sherrington

first inferred the existence of the synapse

Sperry and Gazzaniga

did split-brain studies

Wernicke

identified the part of the brain primarily associated with understanding spoken language

Bekesy

empirical studies led to traveling wave theory of pitch perception which, at least partially, supported Helmholtz's place-resonance theory

Berkeley

developed a list of depth cues that help us perceive depth

Broadbent

proposed filter theory of attention

Fechner

developed Fechner's law, which expresses the relationship between the intensity of the stimulus and the intensity of the sensation

Gibson and Walk

developed the visual cliff apparatus

Gibson

studied depth cues, especially texture gradients

Helmholtz

developed the Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory of color vision; developed place-resonance theory of pitch perception

Hering

developed opponent process theory of color vision

Hubel and Wiesel

studied feature detection in visual cortex and discovered simple, complex, and hypercomplex cells

Kohler

developed the theory of isomorphism; studied insight in problem solving

Melzack and Wall

proposed gate theory of pain

Stevens

developed Stevens's law as an alternative to Fechner's law

Swets

refined ROC curves in signal detection theory

Wever and Bray

developed volley theory of pitch perception in response to a criticism of the frequency theory of pitch perception

Yerkes and Dodson

developed Yerkes-Dodson law which states that performance is best at intermediate levels of arousal

Breland and Breland

studied instinctual drift

Garcia

studied taste-aversion learning

Lorenz

ethologist who studied unlearned, instinctual behaviors in the natural environment

Pavlov

developed the principles of classic conditioning

Premack

suggested the Premack principle: that a more-preferred activity could be used to reinforce a less-preferred activity

Rescorla

performed experiments which showed that contiguity could not fully explain classical condtitioning; proposed the contingency theory of classical conditioning

Thorndike

proposed the law of effect; used puzzle boxes to study problem solving in cats

Tinberen

ethologist who introduced experimental methods into field situations

von Frisch

ethologist who studied communication in honey bees

Watson

performed experiment on Little Albert showing that the acquisition of phobias was due to classical conditioning

Wilson

developed sociobiology

Wolpe

developed the method of systematic desensitization to eliminate phobias

Bartlett

investigated the role of schemata in memory; concluded that memory is largely a reconstructive process

Cattell

divided intelligence into fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence and looked at how they change throughout the lifespan

Collins and Loftus

devised the spreading activation model of semantic memory

Craik and Lockhart

developed the levels-of-processing theory of memory as an alternative to the stage theory of memory

Ebbinghaus

studied memory using nonsense syllables and the method of savings

Gardner

proposed a theory of multiple intelligences that divides intelligence into seven different types, all of which are equally important

Guilford

developed divergent thinking test to measure creativity

Kahneman and Tversky

investigated the use of heuristics in decision-making; studied the availability heuristic and the representativeness heuristic

Loftus

studied eyewitness memory

Luchins

used the water-jar problem to study the effect of mental sets on problem solving

Macoby and Jacklin

found support for gender differences in verbal ability

McClelland and Rumelhart

suggested that the brain processes information using parallel distributed processing

Miller

found that the capacity of short-term memory is 7 plus or minus 2 items

Paivio

proposed the dual-code hypothesis

Smith, Shoben, and Rips

devised the semantic feature-comparison model of semantic memory

Spearman

suggested that individual differences in intelligence were largely due to differences in amount of a general factor called g

Sperling

studied the capacity of sensory memory using the partial-report method

Sternberg

proposed the triarchic theory that divides intelligence into three types: compnential, experiential, and contextual

Thurstone

used factor analysis to study primary mental abilities

Whorf

hypothesized that language determines how reality is perceived

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