Biology Chapters 4, 5 and 8

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What are the basic parts of a cell?

The plasma Membrane, Cytoplasm and Control Center.

What is the Plasma Membrane?

The cell's outer boundary that is a lipid bi-layer. Allows things to pass into or out of the cell.

What is Cytoplasm?

Region within the cell that includes the fluid, organelles and the cytoskeleton but not the nucleus.

What is Cytosol?

Small part of the cytoplasm that contains molecules and small particles but not membran bound organelles.

What is the control center?

Holds the cell's DNA. Nucleus in eukaryotic cells, no nucleus in prokaryotic.

What is a neucleoid?

What DNA is concentrated in in a prokaryotic cell

Best example of multicellularity

Cells---> tissues----> Organs------> Organ System

What are Ribosomes and what do they do?

organelles made up of protein. They manufacture proteins

What do Mitochondria do?

create ATP (energy) for the cell from carbs, fats and proteins. They have their own DNA and have a inner and outer membrane.

Nucleus

RNA transcribed from DNA. Houses & protects DNA

Rough ER

Produce proteins (because ribosomes are on it).

Smooth ER

Moves the proteins down like a highway

Golgi Apparatus

Directs proteins to other parts of the cell

Vesicles

Digest materials and break down old cells.

Lysosomes

Bud from Golgi Apparatus and contain large enzymes. These enzymes can break down large molecules.

Peroxisomes

Similar to lysosomes, but do not bud from the Golgi Apparatus.

What is protein Synthesis?

Production of proteins.

What are gloxysomes?

Like Peroxisomes but are on plants

Microtubules

Hollow tubes made of protein. Hold organelles in place, mantain the cell's shape and acts as a track that guides molecules and organelles.

Microfilaments

Long threads of beadlike protein linked to ends of the cell. Contribute to cell movement.

Intermediate Filaments

Anchor the nucleus and other organelles to their places. Maintain the interbal shape of the nucleus.

Cilia and flagela

Hair like structures that extend from the surface of the cell and assist in movement. Cilia is short and more common, flagela is less common and long

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