One of the major themes revealed from Cop in the Hood: My Year Policing Baltimore's Eastern District was
that crime is functional in their subculture providing stability.
The term "social control" refers to
techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society.
Jennifer is attending a business luncheon with several corporate executives. At one point during the meal, she reaches in front of another executive for a saltshaker and hits the executive's arm as he is about to put a spoonful of soup in his mouth. The soup spills on his shirt, and he glares at Jennifer. The glare is an example of a (an)
Clyde is arrested for "tagging," or "visual terrorism." The arrest is an example of a (an)
Historically, legal measures aimed at blocking discrimination based on race, religion, gender, age, and sexual orientation have been difficult to implement because
many people tacitly encourage such violations.
Which sociological perspective emphasizes that societies literally could not operate if massive numbers of people defied standards of appropriate conduct?
Which of the following terms refers to going along with one's peers, with peers defined as individuals of a person's own status who have no special right to direct that person's behavior?
The managing editor of a newspaper, acting on an order from the publisher, fires three editors, one of whom is an old friend. This is an example of
According to a study by Stanley Milgram, individuals will
obey the commands of people viewed as legitimate authority figures, even if the behavior may harm another individual.
Which of the following examined obedience by conducting an experiment that required subjects to administer "painful" shocks to subjects in an analysis of "learning?"
What was the motivation behind Stanley Milgram's experimental study of obedience?
to better understand German involvement in the annihilation of Jews in World War II
Social control carried out casually by people through such means as laughter, smiles, and ridicule is known as
informal social control.
A college student interrupts the instructor during a seminar; the instructor responds with an angry glare. This is an example of
informal social control
What type of informal social control is supported by 59 percent of pediatricians in spite of the risk of harmful effects to recipients?
Social control carried out by authorized agents—such as police officers, judges, school administrators, and employers—is called
formal social control.
About how many people are imprisoned in non-governmental, privately run prisons in the United States—a significant means of formal social control?
A college student is caught cheating on an exam and is brought before a college-wide disciplinary committee, which decides to expel the student from the school. The committee's action is an example of
formal social control
In 2005, following the passage of the PATRIOT Act, the FBI demanded to see all users' records from the Connecticut public libraries' online catalogue and
A and C only
did not legally need to explain why they needed the records
placed library administrators under a gag order about the demand.
Which sociological perspective would most likely be concerned with the association between the use of surveillance techniques as a means of social control and the power of an authoritarian government?
Which of the following theories offers a view of conformity and deviance that suggests that our connection to members of society leads us to conform systematically to society's norms?
Control theory states that we
are bonded to our family members, friends, and peers in a way that leads us to follow the mores and folkways of our society.
Which sociological perspective would most likely be concerned with the stigmatizing nature of formal social controls that require convicted sex-offenders to register with police agencies and have their pictures published in newspapers to make their identities publicly known?
The contemporary study of possible genetic roots of criminality is but one aspect of the larger debate over
Which of the following connections to criminality is commonly rejected by sociologists?
Deviance defines the limits of proper behavior." This statement represents the view of which sociological perspective?
In Émile Durkheim's view
the punishments established within a culture help to define acceptable behavior and thus contribute to social stability.
Which sociologist noted that punishments established within a culture help to define acceptable behavior and contribute to societal stability?
Which sociologist illustrated the boundary-maintenance function of deviance by examining the Puritans of seventeenth-century New England?
Which term is used in the sociological literature to describe a loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective?
Which of the following would be an example of anomie?
A man loses his job, his fortune, and his family during the Great Depression of the 1930s
Which functionalist sociologist developed a theory of deviance that suggests that members of a society may conform or deviate from the culturally prescribed goals and the means of attaining those goals?
According to Robert Merton, an innovator is an individual who has
accepted the goals of society, but pursues them with means regarded as improper.
In Robert Merton's terms, people who overzealously and cruelly enforce bureaucratic regulations can be classified as
According to Robert Merton, a retreatist is an individual who has
withdrawn from the goals and means of society
An unemployed young adult wants a stereo, but he doesn't have the money or the means of earning the money needed to buy it. His desire for the stereo overwhelms him, and he steals one from a local store. This incident illustrates which theory of deviance?
anomie theory of deviance
Arnold gets an "A" on his organic chemistry exam because he copies most of his answers from Stanley, the "class brain" who is sitting next to him. According to Merton's anomie theory of deviance, Arnold would be classified as a (an)v
An employee at a welfare office is so concerned with paperwork that he doesn't have time to administer to the needs of the poor, hungry, and homeless individuals who seek assistance. According to Merton's theory, this welfare worker would be a (an)
According to Robert Merton, members of revolutionary political organizations such as the Irish Republican Army would typically be classified as
Which sociological perspective's approach to deviance focuses on why rule violation continues to exist in societies despite pressures to conform and obey?
Which theory was used by Edwin Sutherland to emphasize that criminal behavior is learned through social interactions with others?
Which sociologist used the term "differential association" to describe the process by which exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts leads to violation of rules?
Monica, a new student at Valley High School, becomes friends with a group of teenagers who use marijuana and remain seated during the singing of the National Anthem. Although Monica had never used marijuana and used to sing the Anthem, she begins to engage in the same behavior as her new friends. This is an example of
Bob works as a cashier in a supermarket. His boss instructs him to include the price of a new broom—which Bob's boss has deceptively placed near the register—on everyone's bill. Bob's boss also encourages him to change the dates on expired food items so the items can continue to be sold. Eventually, Bob begins to develop his own deceptive sales practices. This is an example of
Which sociologist constructed an experiment utilizing an abandoned car in two different neighborhoods in order to demonstrate the power of communal relationships?
Which theory attributes increases in crime and deviance to the absence or breakdown of communal relationships and social institutions?
social disorganization theory
Which sociologist examined two groups of high school males—the Saints and the Roughnecks—and concluded that social class standing was important in the labeling process?
In his study of the Saints and the Roughnecks, William Chambliss concluded that a key factor in the varying fortunes of the two groups was their differing
social class standing.
A sociologist studies how a teacher's attitudes toward particular students affects students' performance. Students of similar abilities who are "teacher's pets" perform at a high level, and students who are viewed as "troublemakers" perform poorly. This would illustrate which explanation of deviance?
Which of the following individuals would most likely be the focus of labeling theorists who are researching the power of some individuals or groups to define labels
regulators of social control
Which sociologist created an interactionist/conflict explanation of deviance that emphasizes that the response to an act—not the behavior—determines deviance?
The social constructionist perspective is most closely affiliated with which other sociological explanation of deviance
Which conflict sociologist argues that the criminal justice system serves the interests of the powerful and that lawmaking is often an attempt by the powerful to coerce others into their own morality?
A person convicted of a crime—even when prior arrest record and severity of the crime are taken into account—is more likely to receive a shorter prison sentence if he or she is
White and non-Hispanic.
Which sociological perspective would be particularly concerned about studies that show that White criminal offenders receive shorter sentences than comparable Latino and African-American offenders?
An important tenet of labeling theory is the recognition that some individuals or groups have the power to define labels and apply them to others. This view shares the emphasis on the social significance of power as purported by the
A bank president is found guilty of tax evasion. In addition to paying the government all the money he owes with substantial interest, he is sentenced to three years' probation and a $50,000 fine. At the same time, a female teller at the same bank is found guilty of stealing $500. The teller is sentenced to a prison term of no less than four years. This differential treatment would be of particular concern to sociologists using the
A single woman who engages in illegal acts of prostitution in order to support herself and her children is
committing a victimless crime.
Feminist sociologists contend that the so-called victimless crime of prostitution, as well as the more disturbing aspects of pornography
reinforce the misconception that women can be treated as "toys."
Dave, the president of a small corporation, has a wild weekend. He spends a night with a prostitute, gambles illegally, drinks excessively, and uses drugs. Some would suggest he has committed various
A professional criminal is
a person who pursues crime as a day-to-day occupation, developing skilled techniques and enjoying a certain degree of status among other criminals.
The work of a group that regulates relations between various criminal enterprises involved in the smuggling and sale of drugs, prostitution, gambling, and other illegal activities is called
The term "ethnic succession," as used by Daniel Bell, refers to
the process during which the leadership of organized crime is passed from one ethnic group to another.
In a city on the East Coast, organized crime was dominated by an Italian "family," but they were eventually displaced by African Americans. This would be an example of
Independent analysis has revealed which of the following regarding white-collar crime in the United States?
The number of cases prosecuted increased only modestly between 2000 to 2009
What term is used to refer to crimes committed by individuals in the course of their daily business activities?
A corporate vice president is convicted of attempting to bribe a presidential aide. This type of crime is called
Which of the following is true of white-collar crime?
Conviction generally does not harm the person's reputation or career aspirations as much as conviction for a street crime would.
Underreporting of crime in the U.S.
has been a problem because members of racial and ethnic minority groups have not always trusted law enforcement agencies and have often refrained from contacting the police.
What percentage of all gun purchases are denied as a result of checks instituted by the 1994 Brady Act?