Unit 5:Industrialization and Economic Development (68-90)

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Services

Any activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it.

Consumer Services

Businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and education, health, and leisure services

Business Services

Services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses, including professional, financial, and transportation services

Public Services

Services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses.

Clustered Rural Settlements

A rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement

Dispersed Rural Settlements

A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages

Enclosure Moment

The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century

Gravity Model

A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.

Central Place

A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area

Central Place Theory

A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther

Market Area

(or hinterland) The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services.

Threshold

The minimum number of people needed to support the service.

Rank-Size Rule

A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement. Reaper A machine that cuts grain standing in the field.

Primate City Rule

A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second- ranking settlement.

Basic Industries

Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement

Non Basic Industries

Industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community.

Economic Base

A community's collection of basic industries

Central Business District

The area of a city where retail and office activates are clustered

Sustainable Development

The level of development that can be maintained in a country without depleting resources to the extent that future generations will be unable to achieve a comparable level of development.

Greenhouse Effect

Anticipated increase in Earth's temperature, caused by carbon dioxide (emitted by burning fossil fuels) trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface.

Global Warming Theory

Theory that the Earth is gradually warming as a result of an enhanced greenhouse effect in the Earth's atmosphere caused by ever-increasing amounts of carbon dioxide produced by various human activities.

Renewable Resources

A resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by humans.

Nonrenewable Resources

A source of energy or resource that is a finite supply capable of being exhausted.

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