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Terms for pathophysiology at Gateway Community College

Upper GI

infections of mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach and duodenum

lower GI

infections of the small and large intestine, appendix, rectum, and anus

Peristalsis

the force that keeps the food bolus going down the tube

peritonitis

result of perforation of the digestive system and contents go into the abdomen

lacteal

transports materials that are unable to cross the walls of local capillaries to the lymph system

lymph system

________ __________ transports fats and lipids to the blood stream, which carries them to the liver for processing

sjogrens

autoimmune disorder with decreased oral fluid, creates less break down of food by the mouth

digestive enzymes

amylase in the salivary gland and digests starch, pepsin in the stomach and digests protein, hydrochloric acid,

gastrin

stimulates HCI secretion

intrinsic factor

mediates absorption of bit B12

duodenum

first 18 inches of the small intestine, breaks down food for absorption in the rest of the small intestine

enterokinase

activates pancreatic enzymes

cholecystokinin

stimulates gall bladder contraction and pncreatic secretion

secretin

stimulates secretion of pancreatic trypsin and chymotripsin

absorption

food is mostly absorbed in the small intestine but acohol is absorbed in the stomach, water and electrolytes in the colon

excretion

undigested food, various secretions excretory products of metabolism become feces

hematamesis, anemia

symptoms of a person with esophageal varices

pylori

bacteria that causes peptic ulcers and is able to survive in stomach by neutralizing acid with enzymes it secretes

bariatric surgery

procedudes that diminish the size or bypass the stomach, weight loss surgery

diverticula

pocket extending out of the intestine

polyps

growths on the inside of the intestine

stoma

artificial opening used for diseases such as cancer, crohns, ulcerative colitis

diarrhea

cholera, shigella, salmonella, botulinum, and ecolia are all organisms that cause _____________.

celiac sprue

autoimmune disorder that affects people of all ages, requires dietary restrictions of glutens

appendicitis

acute sudden fever, leukocytosis, abdominal pain

infectious peritonitis

rupture of the stomach, spread of infection from fallopian tubes, rupture of an abscess, infection of pre-existing ascites

sterile peritonitis

mediated by chemical irritation, acute pancreatitis due to a spill of pancreatic enzymes, rupture of gallbladder secondary to bile into peritoneum, postsurgical peritonitis caused by talc or surgical chemicals

hemorroids

varicosities of the anal and perianal region caused by increased pressure in the area, pregnancy, chronic constipation, or portal hypertension

kupffer cells

fixed liver phagocytes which scavenge for bacteria, blood cell fragments, ect.

hilus

point at which bile ducts exit from the liver and blood supply enters

dual blood

enters at hilus

portal vein

brings nutrient laden blood to the liver

hepatic artery

brings oxygenized blood to the liver

liver functions

excretory, bile it produces, metabolic- processing of food and metabolism of carbs, fats, and protein, storage- storing carbohydrates and lipids, synthetic- synthesis of all major plasma proteins except immunoglobins, detoxification- drugs, hormones, cytokins and metabolites

portal hypertension

caused by obstructed blood flow through the liver

anastomosis

veins connected by an opening due to surgery or hypertension

portal hypertension

undetoxified blood, missing liver metabolites, variscosities, splenomegaly, ascities, jaundice due to obstruction of bile ducts are caused by ________ ____________

liver pain

liver is loosely connected and easily transplanted, covered with Glissons capsule which has many nerves, congestion may cause dull and diffuse pain.

jaundice

disruption of bilirubin processing, produces brown urine, tumors of the head of liver may occlude bile duct

gallstones

caused from bile and can result in cholecystitis or obstruction

hepatitis

most prevalent liver disease in the world, type a and b have vaccines

cirrhosis

alcoholic kind is the fourth most common killer of men 40 to 60 years of age, produces enlarged liver

liver necrosis

caused by tylenol ingested in doses exceeding 15g

alcoholic liver disease

alcohol affects enzyme balance, fluidity and function of cell membrane, intracellular transport of organelles and metabolites, Produces fatty changes in liver cells.

pancreas

98% used for exocrine function, 2% for endocrine

pancreatic digestive enzymes

exocrine secretions amylase for starch, lipase for lipids, peptidases for protein, bicarbonate for stomach acid, proenzymes are inactive forms of enzymes, mucin

duodenum and vagus

release hormones to stimulate pancreatic production

pancreatic endocrine functions

insulin, glucagon, somatostatin

insulin

from beta cells and regulates the intermediary metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids, lowers blood sugar levels

glucagon

from alpha cells, stimulates liver to convert glycogen to glucose, raises blood sugar levels

somatostatin

enzyme that forms delta cells, an inhibiting hormone to maintain homeostasis

carcinoma of pancreas

difficult to detect early enough to effectively treat

pancreatic necrosis

state which causes release of pancreatic enzymes into the blood

autodigestion

premature activation of pancreatic enzymes causes destruction of the pancreatic tissue and creation of psuedocysts

pancreatitis

alcohol abuse induced state of the pancreas

type I

juvenile onset, require insulin the rest of their lives

type II

adult onset, diabetics may require insulin if the oral antidiabetics arent able to control blood sugars, Always know as type II diabetic per medicare ICD9

The urinary tract

comprised of kidneys, the ureters, the bladder and the urethra

primary function

formation and excretion of urine, ultrafiltration are the _____________ _____________ of the kidneys

secondary function

secreting renin, a hormone that raises blood pressure, erythropoietin, the growth factor that stimulates the production of RBC's is the ______________ ___________ of the kidneys

nephron

is the functional unit of the kidney, where urine is formed

1.25 million

number of functional units in each kidney

glomerulus and tubules

________ and the ______________ are the primary sections of the nephron

glomerulus

consists of specialized capillaries that are modified so taht they allow selective passage of fluids and sollutes from the blood into the lumen, tubules, of the nephron. 90% of fluid is returned to the body

tubules

proximal convoluted, descending limb, nephron loop, ascending limb, distal convoluted tubule - site of resorbtion

bowmans capsule

urine production occurs when fluid and waste are squeezed out of the glomurular capillaries into the ____________

blood pressure

____________ ____________ is the force that squeezes the fluid and waste out of the blood going into the glomerulus

chronic

_________ blood pressure causes thickening of membranes due to hypertension and less effective filtering in the glomerulus

diabetes

______________ also causes thickening of membranes and AA compounds get caught in the membranes

proteinuria

loss of basement membrane permeability due to thickened membranes in the kidney, results in ____________ and indicates deteriorating renal function.

renin

_____________ helps regulate blood pressure

erythropoeitin

_____________ promotes production of b12

stones

kidney ______________ may be removed by lithotripsy or surgery

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

______________ or BPH affects the passage of urine in men with enlarged prostate

pyelonephritis

____________ is an infection of the renal pelvis

diabetes, multiple myoloma, lupis

___________, ____________, and _____________ are three well known causes of pathology of the basement membranes of the glomerulus from antigen-antibody complexes

glomerulusclerosis

__________ caused by atherosclerosis of the renal arteries and branches

tubular necrosis

___________ ____________ is the result of lack of oxygen and adverse actions of toxins or hypoperfusion of the kidneys

gout

________ is when uric acid is deposited in the joints causing pain and in the kidneys resulting in hyperuricemia

metabolic glomerulopathy

____________ _____________ or diabetes, thickended basement membrane, glomerulosclerotic, loss of permeability- proteinuria increased mesangial matrix, vascular changes, prone to infections

andrologist

_______ counter part of gynecologist, deal with infertility

urologist

_____________ deals with other male problems of the reproductive organs

urogenital pathologist

___________ ___________deals with diseases of the male reproductive system

infertility

invitro fertilization for females, no progress for treating males in treating ____________

testosterone

_________ is necessary for normal development, production controlled by pituitary gland, little is produced after birth until puberty, development of sex characteristics in males, necessary for fertility, stimulates development of prostate

leydig

_________ cells secrete testosterone

anterior pituitary

hormone production is directed by the _________ ____________ gland

chlamydia

______________ is the most common STD

treponema pallidum

___________ _____________ is the bacterial pathogen responsible for syphilis

chancre

___________ is the name for ulcers in the primary stage of syphilis

condyloma latum

_____________ ____________ is the name of the secondary stage rash that appears in syphilis

Tertiary stage

severe effects on the cardiovascular and nervous system are characteristics of the __________ _________ of syphilis

BPH

benign prostatic hyperplasia or _______ is enlarged prostate, hormonally induced, imbalance of male and female hormones, impedes urination, nodules are benign and can be shelled out.

prostate

_________ is the most common type of tumor in men

prostate cancer

_________ _________ is the most common cause of cancer in men

robotic surgery

__________ ___________ are very helpful because they can remove tumors without disrupting nerves

True

true or false, most of the venous return from the digestive system and spleen goes directly to the liver via the portal system

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