Which of the following is an example of an unrefined food?
Some foods made with refined grains can contain more of some nutrients and less of others than foods made from whole grains
glucose: sucrose: insoluble fiber
Which of the following represents a monosaccharide: disaccharide: complex carbohydrate?
All of the following are good sources of soluble fiber except:
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the:
The undigested lactose in the intestine draws water and bacteria
Why does someone who has lactose intolerance have gastrointestinal problems, such as gas, cramping, and diarrhea?
Fiber can bind certain minerals, preventing their absorption
The glycemic index is a measure of how quickly and how high blood glucose levels rise after carbohydrates are consumed
the rise in blood glucose levels after eating stimulates the pancreas to secrete the hormone ___, causing blood glucose levels to ____.
All of these choices
compared to anaerobic metabolism of carbohydrate, aerobic metabolism of carbohydrates produces _____ ATP molecules for each glucose molecule
When there is not sufficient carbohydrate to completely metabolize fatty acids, these molecules form:
the reactions that break them down produce two-carbon molecules
Fatty acids cannot be used to make glucose because:
Normal blood glucose level is expected to be less than ____ milligrams/100 milliliters of blood after an 8-hour fast.
Type 1 diabetes
is caused by an autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing cells in the pancras
Weight gain is caused by excess intake of calories, regardless of whether those calories come from carbohydrates, fat, or protein
all of these choices
a high fiber diet may help
The amount of carbohydrate required to meet energy needs, provide adequate glucose, and prevent ketosis is ____ grams per day
The sports drink G2 has 17 grams of carbohydrate in a 20 oz bottle. How many calories does this provide from carbohydrate?
the grams of sugar on the food label do not differentiate between natural and added sugars
Which of the following is not a function of fat in foods?
all of these are sources of hidden fat
sources of hidden fat in our diet include
In the past 40 years, the percentage of calories from fat has
the lipid that makes up most of the lipids in our body is:
when consumed in the diet, can help reduce blood cholesterol levels
Trans Fatty Acid
which of the following is not an essential fatty acid?
the majority of lipid digestion occurs in the:
return cholesterol from other lipoproteins and body cells to the liver
Absorption of water-soluble vitamins
Which of the following is not a function of lipids in the body?
higher in the amounts of omega-6 versus omega-3 fatty acids for optimal health
The typical American diet has a ratio of omega-6 fatty acids to omega-3 fatty acids that is:
splits fatty acids into two-carbon units that form acetyl-CoA and releases high-energy electrons
Adipose tissue is best describes as:
Macrophages form -> LDLs migrate to artery wall -> secreted chemicals promote an inflammatory process
In regard to the development of atherosclerosis, which of the following represent the correct sequence of events?
Cholesterol and HDL
Gary had the following blood levels: cholesterol 245, HDL 35, LDL 99. Which of these blood lipid levels put him at risk?
Whole grain toast with honey
Based on the type of fat found in the following foods, which would be the healthiest choice from the grains group?
The Nutrition Facts panel shows the amount of all of the following except:
Elise is trying to manage her blood cholesterol, she she wants to purchase some crackers that do not have saturated fat in them. Which oil, if it appears in the ingredient list, should she avoid?
Chylomicrons are too large to enter the capillaries in the small intestine
to deliver cholesterol, LDL particles bind to a protein on the cell membrane called an LDL receptor
Trans fatty acids do not only raise LDL cholesterol levels but are also believed to increase the risk of breast cancer
Individuals need a greater number of grams daily of linoleic acid than alpha-linolenic acid for optimal health
One egg contains ___% of the daily recommendation for cholesterol intake
A diet that is based on plant proteins alone cannot meet most people's protein needs
all of these choices
plant foods generally are excellent sources of
a _____ bond joins amino acids together
If the diet is deficient in one or more of the ___ amino acids, the body must break down existing proteins to provide the amino acids
when salivary amylase enters the stomach, the acid causes the structure of this enzyme to change so that is is no longer able to function. This change in structure is called
denature the protein
The role of hydrochloric acid in protein digestion is to
Pepsin beings the chemical digestion of protein in the
The amino acids from the supplement will compete with each other, slowing absorption of other amino acids
Which of the following scenarios is a possibility if an amino acid supplement overwhelms the amino acid transport system?
during the synthesis of a protein, a shortage of one amino acid will not stop synthesis, but two or more missing amino acids will impact protein synthesis negatively
transcription - mRNA takes genetic code to ribosomes - translation
which of the following represents the correct sequence of steps that occur in protein synthesis?
protein molecules consumed in the diet and from the breakdown of body proteins
The amino acid pool is comprised of the
Because our bodies do not store protein, functional body proteins, such as enzymes and muscle proteins, must be broken down to yield amino acids
Marasmus is a form of malnutrition that negatively impacts which of the following developing organs the worst?
a high intake of saturated fat and cholesterol
as validated by evidence-based research, the major health concern with high-protein diets is
celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder that attacks the lining of the small intestine
endurance and strength athletes have a greater protein daily recommendation than non-athletes; therefore, they must use amino acid supplements
protein ____ is a measure of how good the protein in food is at providing the essential amino acids the body needs
children who followed a vegetarian lifestyle will be malnourished