Reproduction

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lactiferous ducts

Drain alveoli and converge on nipples (Iike wheel spokes). Only one duct leads to nipple.

mitosis

Indirect cell division. Results in division of 'parent' cell into two 'daughter' cells.

Tunica Albuginea

Tough membrane that surrounds the testes.

Interstitial cells

Lie near the septa that separate lobules. Produces Testosterone.

Exogenous

Infections resulting from pathogenic organisms. Transmitted from another person (like STDs).

Ductus (vas) Deferens

Tube that connects the epididymus and abdominal cavity (by way of inguinal canal). Thick, smooth, muscular, moveable tube. Vascectomy is performed here.

Oophoritis

Inflammation of the ovaries.

Salpingitis

Inflammation of uterine tube.

DUB

Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding. Hormone imbalance or structural problem. 29% of hysterectomies are because of this.

Ablation

Used to treat DUBs. Endometrial, radiofrequency, themal ablation.

Amenorrhea

Abscence of normal menstration. Primary - failure of menstration to even begin. Secondary- menses slows to 3 or fewer a year.

Dysmenorrhea

Menstral Cramps, 75-80% of all women. Caused by overproduction of prostglandins in inner lining of uterus. Primary - adolescents and young women. Secondary - pelvic pathology, other reproductive organs are usually involved.

Ovum

Female sex cell. 1 matures each month (on average). On day 1-7 of menstral cycle; anterior pituitary gland secrets increasing amounts of FSH, which stimulates LH causing maturing of follicle and ovum.

Phases of menstration

1. menses- 4-5 days of bleeding. 2. Proliferation -blood flow ends, lasts till ovulation, follicles mature, uterine lining thickens, ESTROGEN at highest level. 3. Secretory - Begins at ovulation, ends at menses, highest PROGESTERONE, lining is at its thickest.

Ovulation

Egg (ova) is released. Occurs 14 days BEFORE menses. When fertilization occurs. Women are fertile for only a few days each month around ovulation.

Vestibular Glands

2 pairs of exocrine glands embedded in tissue to the left and right of vaginal outlets, release into the vulva. 1 pair is called the greater vestibular (Bartholin Glands) they lubricate. Other pair is called the lesser vestibular.

Another name for Greater Vestibular

Bartholin Glands

Progestrone

Hormone stimulated by anterior pituitary. Produced by the Corpus luteum. Secreted for 11 days after ovulation. Stimulates destruction and vascularization of epithileal lining of uterus. Acts with estrogen to initiate menstrual cycle at puberty. Highest in the Secretory phase.

Estrogen

Hormone stimulated by anterior pituatary. Produced in ovaries from granulosa cells around oocyte. Causes breast development, menstation, pubic hair, during puberty. Highest in the proliferation phase.

Corpus Luteum

Hormone secreting glandular structure that secretes mostly Progestrone, some Estrogen.

Ovaries

Paired glands weighing about 3g each. Resemble large almonds. Attached to ligaments in pelvic cavity on each side of uterus.

Microscopic structure of ovaries

Ovarian follicles - contains oocyte, which is an immature sex cell (about 1 million at birth). Primary follicles - about 400,000 at puberty are covered with ganulosa cells. Mature follicles - about 350-500 mature follicles ovulate during the reproductive lifetime of women. Secondary follicles, have a hollow chamber called antrum. Corpus luteum forms after ovulation.

Antrum

Hollow chamber in Secondary follicle (found in ovaries).

graafian follicles

Another name for mature follicles. A mature ovum in its sac.

Granulosa Cell

Cell layer surrounding the oocyte. Secretes estrogen.

Oocyte

Immature stage of a femle sex cell.

Polar Bodies

Small, cell produced during meotic division in females. Incapable of being fertilized.

Uterus Processes

MENSTRATION - begins around 12-13. 14 days after ovulation. PREGNANCY. LABOR

Primary Spermatocyte

Occurs during the process of meosis. Two cell divisions during meosis, one remains a spermatocyte, the other becomes the primary spermatocyte.

Hypospadis

Congenital condition where the opening of the urethral meatus is on the underside of the glans or penile shaft.

Bulbourethral Glands

(Also called Cowper glands) Inferior to prostate. Resembles peas, lubricates. Produces 5% of seminal fluid.

Prostate Gland

Donut shaped gland below the urinary bladder. Secretes thin milk colored fluid. Produces 30% of seminal fluid, this fluid protects sperm.

Ovarian Cysts

Fluid filled sacs, usually benign. 2 types: Follicular (most common), Luteal (most symptomatic). Most resolve in 60 days

Male Accesorry of Supportive Sex Glands

SEMEN - 3-5ml, 100 million sperm. SEMINAL VESICLES - pouchlike, 60% of seminal fluid, rich in fructose. PROSTATE GLAND - donut shaped, 30% of fluid. BULBOURETHRAL GLAND (COWPER) - pea shaped, 5% of fluid, lubricates uretha.

Testosterone

Male sex hormone. Secreted in the interstitial cells of the testes. Masculinizes, promotes and maintains male accessory organs, stimulates anabolism.

Mature Follicles

During a women's reproductive years, 350-500 are produced. They are produced from primary follicles. These follicles release an ovum for potential fertilization during ovulation.

Meiosis

Produces gamets by dividing cells to half normal chromosomes (from 46 to 33).

PCOS

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Fluid-filled cysts that effect 10% of women. Most common cause of infertility.

Most common cause of infertility

PCOS - polycystic ovary syndrome.

Myoma Fibroids

Benign tumors of the uterus. Also called fibroids, leumyomas....

Process of cell maturation

Zygote - morula - blastocyst - embryo - fetus

Testes

Male essential sex organ. Surrounded by Tunica Albugineus. Bulk mass is from a narrow coiled structure called Seminiferous tubule, this is divided by interstitial cells that secret testostrone.

Seminiferous Tubule

Bulk of testicular mass. Long duct with central lumen. Sperm develop in the walls then are release into lumen.

Where do sperm develop?

Seminiferous Tubule

Where is testostrone secreted from?

In the interstitial cells of the testes.

Male meosis

Produces one spermatoza and one primary spermatozoa, primary spermatozoa forms four spermatids with 23 chromosomes each.

Spermatogonia

Sperm precursor cells. FSH hormone causes spermatogonia to divide at puberty. Increase the number of sperm stem cells in testes before puberty to prepare for mature sperm (46 chromosomes).

Spermatozoa

Male reproductive cell.

Spermatogenesis

Process of sperm production

Ejaculation

Forceful ejection of fluid containg sperm.

Sperm Head

Contains genetic material

Sperm Midpiece

Mitochondria provide energy for movement. Mitochondria breaks down ATP for energy.

Acrosome

Covers sperm head, contains enzymes that enable the sperm to break down the covering of the ovum.

Sperm Tail

Uses ATP broken down by midpiece for swimming.

Epididymis

Tightly coiled comma shaped tube that lies along the top and behind the testes inside the scrotum. Sperm mature and develop their ability to move, or swim as they pass through here.

ductus (vas) deferns

Tube that permist sperm to exit the epididymis and pass from the scotal sac upward into the abdominal cavity. Thick, smooth, very muscular.

Endogenous

Pathogens that normally inhabit the intestines, vulva or vagina. These organisms are in or on the body.

BPH

Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy. Seen in older men.

PID

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease. Inflammation of uterus, uterine tube, or ovaries. Caused by infection. Major cause of infertility and sterility. Can be a complication of gonococca and chlamidia. Can cause scarring.

Male essential and accessory organs

ESSENTIAL - Testes. ACCESSORY - Ducts (2) epididymis (2) vas deferns (2) ejaculatory duct (2) urethra. SUPPORTIVE - (2) Seminal vesicles (2) bulbourethral (cowper) glands (1) Prostate Gland. EXTERNAL GENITALS - scrotum and penis

Zygote

When ova and sperm fuze

Uterus

Behind bladder, small, pear shaped, almost like a muscle. BODY - middle portion, FUNDUS - above body, connects to uterine tubes, CERVIX - lower, neck like protion. UTERUS WALL - Endometrium (inner, vascular, lost in menstruation) Perimetrium (or epimetrium) (outer) Myometrium (middle, muscular, continuation of abdominal cavity).

Uterine tubes

Also called Fallopian tubes or Ova ducts. Where sperm meets ovum. Ends with Fimbriae.

Fimbriae

Outer end of uterine tubes. Funnel-shaped, fringe-like projections. Curve over the top of each ovary.

Oophorectomy

Surgical removal of the ovaries

Oogenesis

Production of the female gamete

Ovaries

Female Essential organ. Resembles large almond, attached to ligaments in the pelvic cavity on each side of uterus.

Inguinal Hernia

Intestine pushes thru weak area of abdominal cavity from the scrotum.

Spermatoids

Produced when primary spermatocyte divides during meiosis

Brachy Therapy

Placing radioactive seeds into a prostate tumor.

Cryptorchidism

Undescended testes.

glans penis

distal end of shaft

Prepuce

foreskin at distal end of penis

Shaft

(penis) made of erectile tissue.

Oligospermia

decreased sperm production

Ejaculatory duct and Urethra

Passes thru prostate gland to the urethra then to the penis.

Menses

First 4 or 5 days of menstral cycle. Bleeding caused by sloughing off of bits of endometirum. First day of flow is day 1 of menstral cycle.

Proliferation Phase

Days between the end of menses and ovulation. Characterized by repair of endometrium. ESTROGEN at highest level. Follicles mature, lining thickens.

Secretory Phase

Ovulation till menses. It is during this phase of the menstrual cycle that the uterine lining is thickest, and progestrone level is highest.

FSH

Follicle stimulating hormone, (Stimulates Estrogen). Highest at ovulation.

LH

Lutenizing homone, (stimulates Progestrone). Highest at ovulation.

Menarche

very first menses

Gonorrhea

Bacterium

Gential Warts

Virus, Human papillomvirus

Candidasis

Fungus, very serious, can cause bone, skin, organ, tissue damage.

Vagina

Also called birth canal. Distendable tube, between urinary bladder and rectum in the pelvis.

Vestibular Glands

Greater (Bartholin) and lesser vestibular glands. Secrete mucus into vestibule of vulva.

Breasts

Over pectoral muscles of thorax, size determined by fat, lactiferous ducts drain at nipples, surrounded by areola.

Male organs

Produce, store, and ultimately introduce mature sperm into the female reproductive tract.

Female Reproductive System

Receives the sperm, permits fertilization, develops and gives birth to baby, produces lactation.

PSA

Prostae-specific antigen, a substance sometimes found in the blood of men with prostate cancer. A blood test is done to check for this antigen.

Hydrocele

Swelling of the scrotum.

Female Reproductive organs

ESSENTIAL - Ovaries, ACCESSORY - Ducts, Uterine tubes (2), uterus, vagina, ACCESSORY GLANDS - vestibular glans (2 pairs) Breasts. EXTERNAL GENITALS - vulva

Vulva

Consists of; mons pubis, clitoris, external urinary meatus, labia minora, hymmen, opening of ducts of vestibular glands, orifice of vagina, labia majora.

Asexual

single parent

Interstitial cells

Lie near the septa that separate the lobules. Secretes/produces Testostrone.

corpus spongiosum

Erectile tissue in penis

Ejaculatory duct

joins the duct from the seminal vesicle and ductus (vas) deferns

Semen

mixture of sperm and secretions of accessory sex glands (60% Seminal vessicles, 30% prostate, 5% Bulborethral gland.

Ectopic

A pregancy resulting from the implantation of a fertilized ovum in any location other than the uterus.

Difference between seminal vesicles and seminiferous tubule

vesicles SECRETE seminal fluid (60%). Sperm are produced in the walls of the tubule.

Phimosis

Condition in which the foreskin fits so tightly over the glans that it cannot retract.

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