Chapter 42: Circulation and Gas Exchange

Created by DanielaG 

Upgrade to
remove ads

56 terms

nutrients, gases, wastes

What materials can be exchanged over circulatory systems?

open

the type of circulatory system of arthropods and molluscs

closed

the type of circulatory system in vertebrates

arteries

these vessels carry blood away from the heart

veins

these vessels carry blood toward the heart

arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins

order of blood flow when originating at the heart

capillaries

vessels that infiltrate tissues in networks

atria

parts of the heart that receive blood

ventricles

parts of the heart that pump blood out of the heart

pulmocutaneous circuit

a system in three-chambered hearts that forms a forked artery and leads to the lungs and skin

systemic circuit

a part of the circulatory system which carries blood to the rest of the body and back to the right atrium

pulmonary circuit

a part of the circulatory system that is responsible for gas exchange in the lungs

rich

the left side of the heart contains blood that is oxygen _____

poor

the right side of the heart contains blood that is oxygen _____

systole

the period during which the mammalian heart pumps blood

diastole

the period during which the mammalian heart relaxes, allowing the heart chambers to fill with blood

atrioventricular valves

parts of the heart between each atrium and ventricle that are snapped shut when blood is forced against them as the ventricles contract

semilunar valves

parts of the heart at the exit of the aorta and pulmonary artery that are forced open by ventricular contraction, and close when the ventricles relax

sinoatrial node

the pacemaker of the heart; located in the right atrium

atrioventricular node

the part of the heart that relays the impulse of the SA node

hemolymph

body fluid found in sinuses or spaces between organs that bathes the internal tissues, providing for chemical exchange

outer connective tissue, middle muscle, inner lining of endothelium

the layers of an artery or vein wall

endothelium

a single layer of flattened cells

capillaries

these vessels have a slow velocity for blood flow

veins

these vessels have a fast velocity for blood flow

systolic pressure

pressure created from the force exerted against the wall of a blood vessel during systole

diastolic pressure

pressure created by the recoiling of the stretched elastic arteries during diastole

vasconstriction

the contraction of smooth muscles in arteriole walls; increases resistance, thus increases blood pressure

vasodilation

the relaxation of smooth muscles in arteriole walls; decreases resistance, thus decreases blood pressure

endothelin

a peptide produced and secreted by endothelial cells that induces vasoconstriction

plasma

a liquid matrix that makes up about 55% of blood; consists of a large variety of solutes dissolved in water

erythrocytes

cells that transport oxygen; red blood cells; lack mitochondria and generate ATP by anaerobic metabolism

leukocytes

white blood cells that fight infections

platelets

pinched-off fragments of large cells in the bone marrow that are involved in blood clotting

fibrin

the active form of the protein fibrinogen that helps to blot blood

thrombus

a clot of blood that occurs within a blood vessel and blocks the flow of blood

erythropoietin

a hormone that is produced by the kidney in response to low oxygen supply in tissues

atherosclerosis

a disease in which plaque narrows the arteries, thereby restricting blood flow

heart attack

the blockage of coronary arteries that leads to death of cardiac muscle

stroke

the blockage or rupturing of arteries in the head

LDL

the type of cholesterol that is associated with deposits in plaques

HDL

the type of cholesterol that is appear to reduce cholesterol deposition in plaques

hypertension

the condition of high blood pressure; is thought to damage the endothelium and initiate plaque formation

partial pressure

a measurement of the concentration of a gas in air or dissolved in water

higher; lower

a gas will diffuse from a region of ________ partial pressure to a region of ________ partial pressure

ventilation

movement of the respiratory medium across the respiratory surface

countercurrent exchange

an arrangement in which the diffusion gradient favors the movement of oxygen into the blood along the length of the capillary

tracheal systems

tiny air tubes, which branch throughout the body and come into contact with nearly every cell

lungs

invaginated respiratory surfaces restricted to one location from which oxygen is transported by the circulatory system

positive-pressure breathing

a type of breathing that lowers the floor of the oral cavity, expanding it and drawing air into the mouth; used by amphibians

negative-pressure breathing

a type of breathing that uses the lungs; used by mammals

tidal volume

the volume of air inhaled and exhaled by an animal during normal breathing

vital capacity

the maximum volume during forced breathing

residual volume

the air that remains in the alveoli and lungs after forceful exhaling

lower

hemoglobin releases more oxygen in tissues with a _______ amount of oxygen

myoglobin

an oxygen-storing muscle protein

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set