laws that govern human nature
An absolute monarch who appeared to embrace (accept) ideas of the Enlightenment, but did not give up any royal power.
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
separation of powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
Bill of rights
a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)
Articles of Confederation
a written agreement ratified in 1781 by the thirteen original states
law determining the fundamental political principles of a government
a form of government in which people elect representatives to create and enforce laws
a system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
government whose power is defined and limited by law
an agreement between rulers and the people
people hold the final authority in all matters of government
Series of essays that defended the Constitution and tried to reassure Americans that the states would not be overpowered by the federal government.
Freedom of speech
Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man
1st President of the United States
King of England during the American Revolution
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
English Bill of Rights
King William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.
American Bill of Rights
The firs ten amendments passed by Congress in 1789 which would create safeguards that included trial by jury, due process law, right to assemble, unreasonable search, speech, press, and religion
The government of the United States. A set of principles (guidelines) that describe the duties and powers of the government.
Main author of the Declaration of Independence
French philosopher who felt all people were born equal, but became corrupted by society. He opposed titles of nobility and felt the majority should rule.
believed in reform of the criminal justice system
Baron de Montesquieu
believed government should have separation of powers
bloodless overthrow of James II