Which of the following statements about latent trait theory is false?
Nurture not nature determines one's propensity to crime
The Gluecks' research focused on _______________________ as a harbinger of a delinquent career.
early onset of delinquency
Moffitt's concept of ____________________ offenders describes a situation where chronic juvenile offenders' criminal careers extend into adulthood.
life course persisters
______________________ refers to a cluster of antisocial behaviors which include family dysfunction, substance abuse, smoking, precocious sexuality and early pregnancy.
Problem behavior syndrome
Which of the following choices best describes pseudomaturity?
youths who seem to mature faster and engage in early sexuality and drug use
The _______________, identified by Loeber and his associates, begins at an early age with stubborn behavior; it leads to defiance and then to authority avoidance.
authority conflict pathway
Which of the following pathways describes a situation where a delinquent career begins with minor, underhanded behavior and eventually escalates into more serious criminality?
According to development theory, the best predictor of future criminality is:
The _____________ pathway escalates to aggressive acts beginning with aggression, leading to physical fighting and then to violence.
Which of the following is identified as the two critical turning points according to Sampson and Laub?
marriage and career
Which of the following best describes the onset of crime according to interactional theory?
traced to a deterioration of the social bonds during adolescence
By following two matched samples of delinquents and nondelinquents until they reached age sixty-five, Laub and Sampson found that _____________ delinquents died of unnatural causes compared to the nondelinquent subjects.
____________________ contends that one's propensity for crime remains stable throughout the life course, but the opportunities for crime fluctuate over time.
Latent trait view
Which of the following behaviors would a person with low self-control not be likely to exhibit?
volunteer in a nursing home
A person with high self control is not likely to:
use inhalants and smoke pot
The latent trait theory is a developmental theory that focuses on changes in behavior as people travel along the path of life and how these changes affect crime and delinquency.
The life course perspective contends that disruptions in life's major transitions can be destructive and ultimately can promote criminality.
Latent trait theories assume a physical or psychological trait makes some people delinquency-prone.
Problem behavior syndrome advocates believe that delinquency is but one of several social problems experienced by at risk youths.
Loeber's research indicates that people follow one pathway to crime.
Building social capital improves the chances for economic success, building social capital supports conventional behavior and inhibits deviant behavior.
Research shows that children who are raised in two-parent families are less likely to grow up to have happier marriages than children whose parents were divorced or never married.
Interactional theory is a developmental theory that attributes delinquent behavior patterns to childhood socialization and pro-or antisocial attachments over the life course.
The social development model contends that an impulsive personality is the key to delinquency.
Latent trait theories assume that an individual's behavior is linked less to personal change than to changes in the surrounding world.
According to ________________________, women who commit crimes have biological and psychological traits similar to men.
the masculinity hypothesis
Which of the following statements is false concerning gender differences in cognition?
Males acquire language faster.
There are some neurological differences between males and females; females are _____-brain oriented while males are _____-brain oriented.
According to Bem's ____________________, our culture polarizes males and females by forcing them to obey mutually exclusive gender roles, or "scripts."
gender schema theory
Which of the following statements about gender differences and delinquency is false?
Females view aggression as an appropriate means to gain status
In 2008, of the 900 juveniles arrested for murder, only _____ were female.
According to ___________________, female criminality is overlooked or forgiven by males in the criminal justice system.
Freud contends that females suffer from __________________, which produces an inferiority complex in girls, forcing them to compensate for their "defect."
Girls who reach puberty at an earlier age were viewed as being at a higher risk for delinquency because:
they had more contact with older boys
According to _________________, female delinquency is linked to the wish for luxury and excitement.
W. I. Thomas
In her study of gang girls in East Los Angeles, Moore found that close to _______ percent of the girls she interviewed were afraid of their fathers.
In _________________ families, fathers are the breadwinners and mothers stay home or have menial jobs.
According to _____________________ theory, gender differences in delinquency rates are a function of class differences that influence family life.
Which of the following families is most likely to produce daughters whose law-violating behaviors mirror those of their brothers?
Male delinquency is increasing at a faster rate than female delinquency, especially for crimes of violence.
According to socialization models, men are much more likely to feel distressed than women.
Girls are often stereotyped as talkative, and research supports that hypothesis.
Girls fight more frequently at home with parents than do boys.
Girls associated with primarily male gangs exhibit less violence than those in all female gangs.
Girls seem to be more deeply affected than boys by child abuse, and the link between abuse and female delinquency seems strong than it is for male delinquency.
According to liberal feminists, gender inequality stems from the unequal power of men and women in a capitalist society.
Critical feminists argue that, as the roles of women change, so will their crime patterns.
In patriarchal families, the husband and wife share similar positions of power at home and in the workplace; daughters gain a kind of freedom that reflects reduced parental control.
In egalitarian families, the husbands a ssume the role of breadwinners and mothers remain at home; mothers are expected to control the behavior of daughters while giving sons greater freedom.
Chesney-Lind's study found that police are more likely to arrest female adolescents for sexual activity and to ignore the same behavior among male adolescents.
Which of the following children is least likely to live in a two-parent household?
an African American child
Which of the following children is most likely to live in a two-parent household?
an Asian American child
Today about ___________ of African American children live in a two-parent household.
According to the text, there are four categories of family dysfunction that seem to promotedelinquent behavior. Which of the following is not one of these four categories?
Which of the following best describes a blended family?
nuclear families that are the produce of divorce and remarriage
Which of the following statements about gender-specific effects of divorce is false?
Boys are more affected by post-divorce parental conflict
Nye established a link between parental conflict and delinquency with the finding that:
a child's perception of marital happiness was a significant predictor of delinquency
Large families may suffer from _______________________ when resources are spread too thin.
___________________ refers to deprivations children suffer at the hands of their parents, such as lack of food, shelter, and adequate health care.
___________________ is manifested by constant criticism and rejection of the child by the parents.
Psychologists suggest that maltreatment encourages children to use ________________ as a means of solving problems and prevents them from feeling empathy for others.
A ____________________ is a lawyer appointed by the court to look after the interests of those who do not have the capacity to assert their own rights.
guardian ad litem
During a _____________________, the court reviews the facts of the case, determines whether removal of the child from the home is justified, and notifies the parents of charges against them.
At the _____________________, the attorney for the social service agency presents an overview of the case and the evidence; matters such as admissibility of photos and written reports are settled. The attorneys can negotiate a settlement of the case, in wh ich the parents accept a treatment plan.
It is estimated that about _____ out of every 100 child abuse or neglect cases reaches the trial stage.
Many states use the __________________ approach to accommodate the parents' natural right to control their children and the child's right to grow up free from harm.
_____________________ are periodically held to determine if the conditions of the case plan are being met.
Which of the following statements about the abuse-delinquency link is false?
Kids who are only abused during early childhood may be more likely to engage in chronic delinquency
Research studies indicate that good parenting only lowers the risk of delinquency for children living in affluent areas.
Asian American children are more likely to live in two-parent households than are European American children.
According to the text, family breakup is the only type of family dysfunction that has been found to promote delinquent behavior.
Research indicates that children growing up in broken homes were less adjusted than children growing up in homes with high levels of conflict.
Children who are subject to even minimal amounts of physical punishment are more likely to use violence themselves.
Farrington reported that bullies are likely to have children who bully others.
If one sibling is delinquent, research indicates that the probability is low to have another delinquent in the family.
A clique is defined as:
small groups of friends who share activities and confidences
A crowd is defined as:
loosely organized groups of children who share interests and activities
According to the text, __________________ are aggressive kids who are either highly liked or intensely disliked by their peers.
controversial status youth
Co-offending is defined as:
the tendency to commit delinquent acts in small groups rather than alone
Which of the following statements best reflects control theory?
delinquents are alienated from their conventional peers and from their delinquent peers
According to __________________ theory, delinquents are as detached from their peers as they are from other elements of society.
______________________ was terrorized by organized gangs that called themselves "Hectors," "Bugles," "Dead Boys," and other colorful names.
Previously impoverished inner-city districts of major cities such as New York and Chicago are now quite fashionable and expensive, devoted to finance, retail stores, high-priced condos, and entertainment. Which of the following statements best describes an aspect of this development that inhibits urban gang formation?
there are few residential areas and thus few adolescent recruits
A ________________ gang concentrates on drug use and sales but forgoes most delinquent behavior.
A _________________ gang is heavily involved in criminality, particularly in drug sales and they use violence to establish control over drug sale territories.
Which of the following best describes the most common reason for gang member migration in the United States?
social, the gang member's family moves.
according to the text, femals are in gangs in three ways. Which of the following is not one of these three ways?
as back-up gangs
William Julius Wilson contents that older members are still active to somedegree in gangs because:
of the inability to find adequate jobs.
According to the ______ ______ view, female members are still sexually exploited by male gang boys and are sometimes forced to exploit other females.
When gang members toss or flass signs to proclaim thir gang membership, this is called:
The _____ gang was created in Los Angeles, California in 1969 by teens Raymond Washington and Stanley "Tookie" Williams.
The earliest gangs, the Wah Ching, were formed in the nineteenth century by Chinese youths affiliated with adult crime groups called:
According to the ___________________ view, gangs appeal to adolescents' longing for the tribal process that sustained their ancestors.
In recent years, gang control has often been left to local police departments and has taken three basic forms. Which of the following is not one of these basic forms?
Control theorists contend that delinquents are alienated from conventional society, but maintain strong positive bonds to delinquent friends.
Gang formation typically occurs when members of an ethnic minority join together for self-preservation.
A popular headpiece among Asian gang members is the "stingy brim" fedora or a baseballcap with the wearer's nickname and gang affiliation written on the bill.
"Prestige crimes" occur when a gang members steals or assaults someone to get out of the gang.
Detached street worker programs are sometimes credited with curbing gang activities in the 1980s and 1990s.
According to the text, programs that improve the lives of adolescents are the key to reducing gang delinquency.