CRIJ 1313, Test 2

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R. Stewart, TVCC

Which of the following statements about latent trait theory is false?

Nurture not nature determines one's propensity to crime

The Gluecks' research focused on _______________________ as a harbinger of a delinquent career.

early onset of delinquency

Moffitt's concept of ____________________ offenders describes a situation where chronic juvenile offenders' criminal careers extend into adulthood.

life course persisters

______________________ refers to a cluster of antisocial behaviors which include family dysfunction, substance abuse, smoking, precocious sexuality and early pregnancy.

Problem behavior syndrome

Which of the following choices best describes pseudomaturity?

youths who seem to mature faster and engage in early sexuality and drug use

The _______________, identified by Loeber and his associates, begins at an early age with stubborn behavior; it leads to defiance and then to authority avoidance.

authority conflict pathway

Which of the following pathways describes a situation where a delinquent career begins with minor, underhanded behavior and eventually escalates into more serious criminality?

covert pathway

According to development theory, the best predictor of future criminality is:

past criminality

The _____________ pathway escalates to aggressive acts beginning with aggression, leading to physical fighting and then to violence.

overt

Which of the following is identified as the two critical turning points according to Sampson and Laub?

marriage and career

Which of the following best describes the onset of crime according to interactional theory?

traced to a deterioration of the social bonds during adolescence

By following two matched samples of delinquents and nondelinquents until they reached age sixty-five, Laub and Sampson found that _____________ delinquents died of unnatural causes compared to the nondelinquent subjects.

more

____________________ contends that one's propensity for crime remains stable throughout the life course, but the opportunities for crime fluctuate over time.

Latent trait view

Which of the following behaviors would a person with low self-control not be likely to exhibit?

volunteer in a nursing home

A person with high self control is not likely to:

use inhalants and smoke pot

The latent trait theory is a developmental theory that focuses on changes in behavior as people travel along the path of life and how these changes affect crime and delinquency.

False

The life course perspective contends that disruptions in life's major transitions can be destructive and ultimately can promote criminality.

True

Latent trait theories assume a physical or psychological trait makes some people delinquency-prone.

True

Problem behavior syndrome advocates believe that delinquency is but one of several social problems experienced by at risk youths.

True

Loeber's research indicates that people follow one pathway to crime.

False

Building social capital improves the chances for economic success, building social capital supports conventional behavior and inhibits deviant behavior.

True

Research shows that children who are raised in two-parent families are less likely to grow up to have happier marriages than children whose parents were divorced or never married.

False

Interactional theory is a developmental theory that attributes delinquent behavior patterns to childhood socialization and pro-or antisocial attachments over the life course.

False

The social development model contends that an impulsive personality is the key to delinquency.

False

Latent trait theories assume that an individual's behavior is linked less to personal change than to changes in the surrounding world.

True

According to ________________________, women who commit crimes have biological and psychological traits similar to men.

the masculinity hypothesis

Which of the following statements is false concerning gender differences in cognition?

Males acquire language faster.

There are some neurological differences between males and females; females are _____-brain oriented while males are _____-brain oriented.

left, right

According to Bem's ____________________, our culture polarizes males and females by forcing them to obey mutually exclusive gender roles, or "scripts."

gender schema theory

Which of the following statements about gender differences and delinquency is false?

Females view aggression as an appropriate means to gain status

In 2008, of the 900 juveniles arrested for murder, only _____ were female.

65

According to ___________________, female criminality is overlooked or forgiven by males in the criminal justice system.

chivalry hypothesis

Freud contends that females suffer from __________________, which produces an inferiority complex in girls, forcing them to compensate for their "defect."

penis envy

Girls who reach puberty at an earlier age were viewed as being at a higher risk for delinquency because:

they had more contact with older boys

According to _________________, female delinquency is linked to the wish for luxury and excitement.

W. I. Thomas

In her study of gang girls in East Los Angeles, Moore found that close to _______ percent of the girls she interviewed were afraid of their fathers.

70

In _________________ families, fathers are the breadwinners and mothers stay home or have menial jobs.

paternalistic

According to _____________________ theory, gender differences in delinquency rates are a function of class differences that influence family life.

power-control

Which of the following families is most likely to produce daughters whose law-violating behaviors mirror those of their brothers?

egalitarian families

Male delinquency is increasing at a faster rate than female delinquency, especially for crimes of violence.

False

According to socialization models, men are much more likely to feel distressed than women.

False

Girls are often stereotyped as talkative, and research supports that hypothesis.

False

Girls fight more frequently at home with parents than do boys.

True

Girls associated with primarily male gangs exhibit less violence than those in all female gangs.

False

Girls seem to be more deeply affected than boys by child abuse, and the link between abuse and female delinquency seems strong than it is for male delinquency.

True

According to liberal feminists, gender inequality stems from the unequal power of men and women in a capitalist society.

False

Critical feminists argue that, as the roles of women change, so will their crime patterns.

False

In patriarchal families, the husband and wife share similar positions of power at home and in the workplace; daughters gain a kind of freedom that reflects reduced parental control.

False

In egalitarian families, the husbands a ssume the role of breadwinners and mothers remain at home; mothers are expected to control the behavior of daughters while giving sons greater freedom.

False

Chesney-Lind's study found that police are more likely to arrest female adolescents for sexual activity and to ignore the same behavior among male adolescents.

True

Which of the following children is least likely to live in a two-parent household?

an African American child

Which of the following children is most likely to live in a two-parent household?

an Asian American child

Today about ___________ of African American children live in a two-parent household.

one-quarter

According to the text, there are four categories of family dysfunction that seem to promotedelinquent behavior. Which of the following is not one of these four categories?

family makeup

Which of the following best describes a blended family?

nuclear families that are the produce of divorce and remarriage

Which of the following statements about gender-specific effects of divorce is false?

Boys are more affected by post-divorce parental conflict

Nye established a link between parental conflict and delinquency with the finding that:

a child's perception of marital happiness was a significant predictor of delinquency

Large families may suffer from _______________________ when resources are spread too thin.

resource dilution

___________________ refers to deprivations children suffer at the hands of their parents, such as lack of food, shelter, and adequate health care.

Physical neglect

___________________ is manifested by constant criticism and rejection of the child by the parents.

Emotional abuse

Psychologists suggest that maltreatment encourages children to use ________________ as a means of solving problems and prevents them from feeling empathy for others.

aggression

A ____________________ is a lawyer appointed by the court to look after the interests of those who do not have the capacity to assert their own rights.

guardian ad litem

During a _____________________, the court reviews the facts of the case, determines whether removal of the child from the home is justified, and notifies the parents of charges against them.

advisement hearing

At the _____________________, the attorney for the social service agency presents an overview of the case and the evidence; matters such as admissibility of photos and written reports are settled. The attorneys can negotiate a settlement of the case, in wh ich the parents accept a treatment plan.

pretrial conference

It is estimated that about _____ out of every 100 child abuse or neglect cases reaches the trial stage.

10

Many states use the __________________ approach to accommodate the parents' natural right to control their children and the child's right to grow up free from harm.

balancing-of-the-interests

_____________________ are periodically held to determine if the conditions of the case plan are being met.

Review hearings

Which of the following statements about the abuse-delinquency link is false?

Kids who are only abused during early childhood may be more likely to engage in chronic delinquency

Research studies indicate that good parenting only lowers the risk of delinquency for children living in affluent areas.

False

Asian American children are more likely to live in two-parent households than are European American children.

True

According to the text, family breakup is the only type of family dysfunction that has been found to promote delinquent behavior.

False

Research indicates that children growing up in broken homes were less adjusted than children growing up in homes with high levels of conflict.

False

Children who are subject to even minimal amounts of physical punishment are more likely to use violence themselves.

True

Farrington reported that bullies are likely to have children who bully others.

True

If one sibling is delinquent, research indicates that the probability is low to have another delinquent in the family.

False

A clique is defined as:

small groups of friends who share activities and confidences

A crowd is defined as:

loosely organized groups of children who share interests and activities

According to the text, __________________ are aggressive kids who are either highly liked or intensely disliked by their peers.

controversial status youth

Co-offending is defined as:

the tendency to commit delinquent acts in small groups rather than alone

Which of the following statements best reflects control theory?

delinquents are alienated from their conventional peers and from their delinquent peers

According to __________________ theory, delinquents are as detached from their peers as they are from other elements of society.

control

______________________ was terrorized by organized gangs that called themselves "Hectors," "Bugles," "Dead Boys," and other colorful names.

London

Previously impoverished inner-city districts of major cities such as New York and Chicago are now quite fashionable and expensive, devoted to finance, retail stores, high-priced condos, and entertainment. Which of the following statements best describes an aspect of this development that inhibits urban gang formation?

there are few residential areas and thus few adolescent recruits

A ________________ gang concentrates on drug use and sales but forgoes most delinquent behavior.

party

A _________________ gang is heavily involved in criminality, particularly in drug sales and they use violence to establish control over drug sale territories.

organized

Which of the following best describes the most common reason for gang member migration in the United States?

social, the gang member's family moves.

according to the text, femals are in gangs in three ways. Which of the following is not one of these three ways?

as back-up gangs

William Julius Wilson contents that older members are still active to somedegree in gangs because:

of the inability to find adequate jobs.

According to the ______ ______ view, female members are still sexually exploited by male gang boys and are sometimes forced to exploit other females.

social injury

When gang members toss or flass signs to proclaim thir gang membership, this is called:

representing

The _____ gang was created in Los Angeles, California in 1969 by teens Raymond Washington and Stanley "Tookie" Williams.

Crips

The earliest gangs, the Wah Ching, were formed in the nineteenth century by Chinese youths affiliated with adult crime groups called:

tongs

According to the ___________________ view, gangs appeal to adolescents' longing for the tribal process that sustained their ancestors.

anthropological

In recent years, gang control has often been left to local police departments and has taken three basic forms. Which of the following is not one of these basic forms?

peer-gang educators

Control theorists contend that delinquents are alienated from conventional society, but maintain strong positive bonds to delinquent friends.

False

Gang formation typically occurs when members of an ethnic minority join together for self-preservation.

True

A popular headpiece among Asian gang members is the "stingy brim" fedora or a baseballcap with the wearer's nickname and gang affiliation written on the bill.

False

"Prestige crimes" occur when a gang members steals or assaults someone to get out of the gang.

False

Detached street worker programs are sometimes credited with curbing gang activities in the 1980s and 1990s.

False

According to the text, programs that improve the lives of adolescents are the key to reducing gang delinquency.

True

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