Psychology Midterm Exam

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Wilhelm Wundt's laboratory work involved experimental studies of

reactions to sensory stimulation.

In a psychological experiment, the experimental factor that is manipulated by the investigator is called the ________ variable.

independent

In the early 1960s, the cognitive revolution in psychology involved a renewal of interest in the scientific study of

mental processes

Professor Lopez believes that severe depression results primarily from an imbalanced diet and abnormal brain chemistry. Professor Lopez favors a ________ perspective on depression.

neuroscience

A hypothesis is a(n)

testable prediction that gives direction to research.

In an effort to prevent participants in an experiment from trying to confirm the researchers' predictions, psychologists sometimes

deceive participants about the true purpose of an experiment.

The perception that psychological research findings merely verify our commonsense understanding is most clearly facilitated by

hindsight bias

The case study is a research method in which

a single individual is studied in great depth.

A negative correlation between degree of wealth and likelihood of suffering from a psychological disorder would indicate that

people who are poor are more likely to have a psychological disorder than are wealthy people.

If research participants given an inert substance that is presumed to have medicinal benefits experience pain relief, this illustrates

the placebo effect.

Dr. Wilson attributes the delinquent behaviors of many teens to the pressures associated with being members of street gangs. Her account best illustrates a(n) ________ perspective.

social-cultural

Lissette wonders whether personality differences between her African-American and Asian-American friends result from biological or cultural influences. In this instance, Lissette is primarily concerned with the relative contributions of

nature and nurture

Megan was certain that she would never live far away from her family. However, when offered a better job in another state, she decided to move. Megan's experience best illustrates

overconfidence

Psychologists' personal values and goals

can bias their observations and interpretations.

The simplified reality of laboratory experiments is most helpful in enabling psychologists to

develop general principles that help explain behavior.

In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal travels from the ________ of a single neuron.

dendrites to the cell body to the axon

Neurotransmitters are released from vesicles located on knoblike terminals at the end of the

axon

A drug that mimics the effects of a particular neurotransmitter or blocks its reuptake is called a(n)

agonist

Sensory neurons are located in the

peripheral nervous system.

You come home one night to find a burglar in your house. Your heart starts racing and you begin to perspire. These physical reactions are triggered by the

sympathetic nervous system.

To identify which specific brain areas are most active during a particular mental task, researchers would be most likely to make use of a(n)

fMRI

To demonstrate that brain stimulation can make a rat violently aggressive, a neuroscientist should electrically stimulate the rat's

amygdala

After Kato's serious motorcycle accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebellum. Kato is most likely to have difficulty

playing his guitar.

The "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem is called the

cerebellum

Which of the following is the component of the limbic system that plays an essential role in the processing of new memories?

hippocampus

Left-handedness is ________ common than usual among mathematicians and ________ common than usual among artists.

more; more

The surgical removal of a large tumor from Dane's occipital lobe resulted in extensive loss of brain tissue. Dane is most likely to suffer some loss of

visual perception.

People's moral judgments are most likely to seem unrestrained by normal emotions if they have suffered damage to their

frontal cortex.

The corpus callosum is a wide band of axon fibers that

transmits information between the cerebral hemispheres.

The capacity of one brain area to take over the functions of another damaged brain area is known as

plasticity.

The ability to simultaneously monitor the shape as well as the color of an object best illustrates the value of

dual processing.

The human sleep cycle repeats itself about every

90 minutes.

Symptoms of drug withdrawal are likely to be

most severe among those with high levels of drug tolerance.

Researchers are most likely to question the value of hypnosis for

enhancing memory.

The use of barbiturates ________ anxiety and ________ nervous system activity.

decreases; decreases

Compared with unconscious information processing, conscious information processing is relatively

slow and especially effective for solving new problems.

Which theory suggests that dreams are mental responses to random bursts of neural stimulation?

activation-synthesis theory

In large doses, alcohol is a ________; in small amounts, it is a ________.

depressant; depressant

Which of the following disorders is characterized by the temporary cessations of breathing while asleep?

sleep apnea

The cocktail party effect provides an example of

selective attention.

Research on susceptibility to hypnosis indicates that

people who are highly responsive to hypnotic suggestion tend to become absorbed in the imaginary events of a novel or a movie.

Evidence suggests that we consolidate our memories of recent life events through

REM sleep.

Sleep deprivation has been shown to

diminish immunity to disease.

THC, the active ingredient in ________, is classified as a ________.

marijuana; hallucinogen

One biological basis for addiction involves brain activity in the ________ reward system.

dopamine

Infant motor development is typically characterized by individual differences in ________ of the major developmental milestones.

the age-related timing but not the sequence

Four-year-old Karen can't remember anything of the first few months of her life. This is best explained by the fact that

she lacked language skills for organizing her early life experiences.

Which of the following represents the correct order of Piaget's stages of cognitive development?

sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational

At about 8 months, children become increasingly likely to react to newcomers with tears and distress. This best illustrates

stranger anxiety.

When placed in strange situations without their artificial mothers, the Harlows' infant monkeys demonstrated signs of

insecure attachment.

Fourteen-year-old Lisa was asked, "What would happen if everyone in the world suddenly went blind?" She responded, "Those who had previously been blind would become leaders." Lisa's answer indicates she is in the ________ stage of development.

formal operational

Regis thinks it's wrong to drive over the speed limit simply because he might get punished for doing so. He is demonstrating Kohlberg's ________ stage of morality.

preconventional

The corrupt behavior of many ordinary people who served as Nazi concentration camp guards best illustrates that immorality often results from

social influence

Sixteen-year-old Brenda questions her parents' values but does not fully accept her friends' standards either. Her confusion about what she really wants and values in life suggests that Brenda is struggling with the problem of

identity

Erikson suggested that the adolescent search for identity is followed by a developing capacity for

intimacy.

During the last few years, 75-year-old Mrs. Yamaguchi has gradually become so mentally disoriented that she can't find her way around her own house and often fails to recognize her husband. It is most likely that Mrs. Yamaguchi is suffering the effects of

Alzheimer's disease.

Physical abilities such as muscular strength, reaction time, sensory keenness, and cardiac output reach their peak during

early adulthood

Aerobic exercise programs during late adulthood stimulate improvement in

memory.

The ability to learn a new computer software program is to ________ as knowledge of state capitals is to ________.

fluid intelligence; crystallized intelligence

To qualify for the office manager's job, 55-year-old Mariel must take a series of psychological tests. Her performance on the test of ________ is likely to be poorer than if she had taken it as a 25-year-old.

abstract reasoning

Sensation is to ________ as perception is to ________.

detection; interpretation

After listening to your high-volume car stereo for 15 minutes, you fail to realize how loudly the music is blasting. This best illustrates

sensory adaptation.

The blind spot is located in the area of the retina

where the optic nerve leaves the eye.

Visual information is processed by

ganglion cells before it is processed by feature detectors.

When most people stare first at a blue circle and then shift their eyes to a white surface, the afterimage of the circle appears

yellow

Eardrum vibrations are transmitted by three tiny bones located in the

middle ear

Place theory suggests that

the pitch we hear is related to the place where the cochlea's basilar membrane is stimulated.

The sense of touch includes the four basic sensations of

pressure, pain, warmth, and cold.

Our sense of the position and movement of individual body parts is called

kinesthesis.

The McGurk effect best illustrates

sensory interaction.

Which of the following senses is best described as a chemical sense?

smell

The visual cliff is a laboratory device for testing ________ in infants.

depth perception

If two objects are assumed to be the same size, the object that casts the smaller retinal image is perceived to be

more distant.

When Rick learned that many students had received a failing grade on the midterm exam, he was no longer disappointed by his C grade. His experience best illustrates the importance of

context effects.

After hearing rumors about the outbreak of an infectious disease, Will began to perceive his normal aches and pains as disease-related symptoms. His reaction best illustrates the impact of

perceptual set

According to the text, learning involves

a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience.

Pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their food illustrate

classical conditioning.

Last year, Dr. Moritano cleaned Natacha's skin with rubbing alcohol prior to administering each of a series of painful rabies vaccination shots. Which of the following processes accounts for the fact that Natacha currently becomes fearful every time she smells rubbing alcohol?

classical conditioning

A real estate agent showed Gavin several pictures of lakeshore property while they were eating a delicious, mouth-watering meal. Later, when Gavin was given a tour of the property, he drooled with delight. For Gavin, the lakeshore property was a

CS

Makayla developed an intense fear of flying five years ago when she was in a plane crash. The fact that today she can again fly without distress indicates that her fear has undergone

extinction

After learning to fear a white rat, Little Albert responded with fear to the sight of a rabbit. This best illustrates the process of

generalization

An animal trainer is teaching a miniature poodle to balance on a ball. Initially, he gives the poodle a treat for approaching the ball, then only for placing its front paws on the ball, and finally only for climbing on the ball. The trainer is using the method of

successive approximations.

Every Saturday morning, Arnold quickly washes the family's breakfast dishes so that his father will allow him to wash his car. In this instance, washing the car is a(n)

positive reinforcer.

A response is learned most rapidly and is most resistant to extinction if it is acquired under conditions of

continuous reinforcement followed by partial reinforcement.

On the first day of class, Professor Wallace tells her geography students that pop quizzes will be given at unpredictable times throughout the semester. Clearly, studying for Professor Wallace's surprise quizzes will be reinforced on a ________ schedule.

variable-interval

Because Yuri was curious about human behavior, he enrolled in an introductory psychology course. George registered because he heard it was an easy course that would boost his grade point average. In this instance, Yuri's behavior was a reflection of ________, whereas George's behavior was a reflection of ________.

intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation

Negative reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding, and punishments ________ the rate of operant responding.

increase; decrease

Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed his older brother does so. This illustrates the importance of

modeling.

We find it harder to frown when viewing a smile than when viewing a frown. This can most clearly be attributed to

mirror neurons.

In a well-known experiment, preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflated Bobo doll that an adult had just beaten on. This experiment served to illustrate the importance of

observational learning.

The persistence of learning over time most clearly depends on

memory

The integration of new incoming information with knowledge retrieved from long-term memory involves the activity of

working memory.

During her psychology test, Kelsey could not remember the meaning of the term serial position effect. Surprisingly, however, she accurately remembered that the term appeared on the ninth line of a left-hand page in her textbook. Her memory of this incidental information is best explained in terms of

automatic processing.

In an effort to remember how to spell "rhinoceros," Samantha spells the word aloud 30 times. She is using a technique known as

rehearsal.

Chess masters can recall the exact positions of most pieces after a brief glance at the game board. This ability is best explained in terms of

chunking

The address for obtaining tickets to a popular quiz show flashes on the TV screen, but the image disappears before Sergei has had a chance to write down the complete address. To his surprise, however, he has retained a momentary mental image of the five-digit zip code. His experience best illustrates ________ memory.

iconic

"The Magical Number Seven, plus or minus two" refers to the storage capacity of ________ memory.

short-term

Joshua vividly recalls his feelings and what he was doing at the exact moment when he heard of his grandfather's unexpected death. This best illustrates

flashbulb memory.

Remembering how to solve a jigsaw puzzle without any conscious recollection that you can do so best illustrates ________ memory.

implicit

When an eyewitness to an auto accident is asked to describe what happened, which test of memory is being used?

recall

Words, events, places, and emotions that trigger our memory of the past are called

retrieval cues.

When Tony is in a bad mood, he interprets his parents' comments as criticisms. When he's in a good mood, he interprets the same types of parental comments as helpful suggestions. This best illustrates that our emotional states influence the process of

encoding

In considering the seven sins of memory, misattribution is to the sin of ________ as blocking is to the sin of ________.

distortion; forgetting

Our inability to remember information presented in the seconds just before we fall asleep is most likely due to

encoding failure.

After reading a newspaper report suggesting that drunken driving might have contributed to a recent auto accident, several people who actually witnessed the accident began to remember the driver involved as traveling more recklessly than was actually the case. This provides an example of

the misinformation effect.

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