NASM Chapter 2 - Basic Exercise Science

34 terms by gretchsherm 

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Kinetic Chain

The combination and interrelation of the nervous, skeletal, and muscular systems.

Nervous System

Large groups of cells that form nerves, which provide a communication network within the body

Sensory Function

The ability of the nervous system to sense changes in either inttermal or external environments

Integrative Function

The ability of the nervous system to analyze and interpret sensory information to allow for proper decision making, which produces the appropriate response

Motor Function

The neuromuscular response to sensory information

Neuron

The functional unit of the nervous system

Sensory (afferent) neurons

Neurons that transmit nerve impulses fromm effector sites to the brain or spinal cord

Interneurons

Neurons that transmit impulses from one neuron to another

Motor (efferent) neurons

Neurons that transmit nerve impulses from the brain or spinal cord to the effector sites.

Central nervous system

Consists of the brain and spinal cord and serves mainly to interpret information

Peripheral nervous system

Cranial and spinal nerves that spread throughout the body and serve to relay information from bodily orgams to the brain and from the brain to bodily organs

Mechanoreceptors

The ability of the nervous system to analyze and interpret sensory information to allow for proper decision making which produces the appropriate response

Muscle spindles

Fibers sensitive to change in length of the muscle and the rate of that change

Golgi tendon organs

Organs sensitive to change in tension of the muscle and the rate of that change.

Joint receptors

Receptors sensitive to pressure, acceleration, and deceleration in the joint

Tendons

attach muscles to bones and provide the anchor from which the muscle can exert force and control bone and joint

Muscle

is tissue consisting of long cells that contract when stimulated to produce motion

Neurotransmitter

are chemical messengers that transmit electrical impulses from the nerve to the muscle

The Muscular system

is a series of muscles that the nervous system commands to move the skeletal system

Sarcomere

the functional unit of muscle that produces muscular contraction which consists of repeating sections of actin and myosin

Neural activation

the contraction of a muscle generated by the communication between the nervous system and muscular system

Skeletal system

The body's frame, which is comprised of bones and joints

Bones

Hard connective tissues that connect to create a skeletal framework

Joints

The movable places where two or more bones meet

Axial skeleton

Portion of the skeletal system that consists of the skull, rib cage, and vertebral column

Appendicular skeleton

Portion of the skeletal system that includes the upper and lower extremities.

Depression

Flattened or indented portion of bone which can be a muscle attachment site.

Process

Projection protruding from the bone where muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach

Arthrokinematics

The movement of the joints

Synovial joints

Joints that are held together by a join capsule and ligaments and are most associated with movement in the body

Nonsynovial joints

Joints that do not have a joint cavity, connective tissue, or cartilage

Ligament

Connective tissue that connects bone to bone

Type I Slow Twitch Fibers

Smaller in size, produce less force, slow to fatigue, long-term contractions

Type II Fast Twitch Fibers

Lower in capillaries, mitochondria, myoglobin, produce more force, quick to fatigue, short-term contractions (force & power)

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