Chapter 5- Socialization

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Dr. Fansher Soc-101-A06

Socialization

Lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture

Personality

Refers to a persons fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling.

Id

According to Freud, this represents a persons basic drives, which are unconscious and demand immediate satisfaction.

Ego

According to Freud, this is a persons conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure seeking drives with the demands of society?

Superego

Freud's term for the cultural values and norms internalized by an individual is known as this? {they exist in the individual}

Sensorimotor

This stage refers to Piaget's term for the level of human development at which the individual experiences the world only through their senses.

Preoperational

One of Piaget's stages for when individuals first use language and other symbols.

Concrete Operations

Piaget's state when individuals first perceive causal connections in their surroundings.

Self

Refers to Mead's term for that part of an individuals personality composed of self awareness, and self image.

Looking-Glass Self

Charles Horton Cooley's term for self-image based on how we think others see us.

Significant others

People, such as parents, who have special importance for socialization

generalized others

Refers to Mean's term for the widespread cultural norms and values we use as a reference in evaluating ourselves.

peer group

Social group whose members have interest, social position, and age in common.

Anticipatory Socialization

Refers to learning that helps a person achieve a desired position.

Mass media

Refers to means for delivering impersonal communications to a vast audience.

Cohort

Category of people with something in common, usually age.

Total Institution

A setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society and manipulated by an administrative staff.

Resocialization

Efforts to radically change an inmates personality by carefully controlling the environment

Behaviorism

This approach was developed by John Watson & provides a perspective that stressed learning rather that instincts as the key to personality development.

Repression

Sigmund Freud called society's controlling influence on the drives of the individual this:______.

Formal Operations

According to Piaget's theory of cognitive development, the level of human development at which individuals think abstractly and critically is known as this?

Preconventional, Conventional, postconventional

What are the three stages that Kohlberg identifies with moral development?

Boys; Justice! right or wrong judgement. Girls; Care and Responsibility

Carol Gilligan suggest that boys use a _____ perspective in moral reasoning which is ___ or ____. Girls tend to use _____ and _____ perspective in moral reasoning which leads them to judge a situation with an eye toward personal relationships.

imitation

Mead says that infants with limited social experience respond to others in only of terms of this...

identity, confusion

Erikson's developmental theory, the challenge of adolescence, involves gaining _____ vs. _______.

denial,
anger,
negotiation,
resignation(depression accompanies often*),
acceptance

What are Elizabeth Kübler-Ross's 5 stages of death in order of occurrence?

total institutions

Prisons and mental hospitals are examples of?

Behaviorism

This theory holds that behavior is not instinctive but learned.

Social Experience

The story of Anna illustrates the significance of this is personality development?

Deprivation of social experience, rather than lack of a specific parent has devastating effects.

Where did the experiments on social isolation among rhesus monkey's show?

The term 'instinct' is understood as very general human needs in the form of urges and drives

How is Sigmund Freud's analysis of personality represented?

Eros

Freud's term for the need for bonding, which is life instinct, called this ____?

thantos

Freud's 2nd life basic need term, this is an aggressive drive called the death instinct, or this ____?

Sublimination

According to Freud, this redirects selfish drives into socially acceptable behavior?

Cognition which is how people think and understand

Jean Piaget focused on?

Sensorymotor

What is the first stage in Piaget's cognitive development theory?

Level of human development when language d other symbols are first used.

According to Piaget, ow is the preoperation stage of cognitive development described?

An attempt is made to asses the intention in reaching moral judgements instead of simply observing what others do.

Describe a person operating at the conventional stage of Kohlberg's moral development theory.

Justice perspective (right or wrong)

According to Gilligan, Males use what kind of perspective for moral reasoning?

George Mead

Social Behaviorism is who's perspective?

Cooley's idea that the self image we have is based on how we supposed others perceive us.

Looking Glass self refers to what?

Self Aware

According to Mead, taking on the role of others makes us what?

I

The active subjective side of the self is called?

Me

The social objective side of the self is the?

Generalized other

Mead's term:
a. looking glass self
b. socialization
c. significant other
d. generalized other

making a difference vs. self absorption

What is the challenge of middle adulthood according to Erikson?

False! very general & controlling.

With total institution, staff members encourage maintenance of individuality and encourage creativity. T/f

Family, school, peers, and mass media.

What are the important agents of socialization ?

imitation, play, games, generalized others

What are the 4 Stages to Mead's development of self?

Freud

Who was Erikson influence by?

True

Watson said behavior is learned? t/f

True

According to Harlow's studies, after 6 months of isolation the monkeys had permanent damage? t/f

True

The isolation children's studies support Harlows work? t/f

False

In Freuds model of personality the ego is the same as conscious? t/f

true

According to Piaget's theory, language and symboled are first used in the pre operational stage. T/f

false

Self esteem of girls increases during teenage years? t/f

true

George Mead focused on symbolic meaning, attached to behavior. t/f

false, Cooley did this

Mead found the "looking glass" theory to refer to significant others in our life. t/f

true

Meads theory is completely social; did not recognize role for being in personality development. t/f

false

Meads concept of "i" and "me" are close parallels of Freud's concepts of id and super ego. t/f

false

Erikson composed that almost all important socialization takes place in childhood. t/f

true

Family has the greatest impact on socialization. t/f

true

Schools provide children with early experience of a bureaucracy. t/f

True

Anti-elderly bias in the US will probably decrease as the percent of older people rises. T/f

Holistic nature of personality

What is Freud's greatest contribution to the field of Sociology?

When they have finished their education.

When do people generally reach "adulthood"?

Social experience

What is essential for the self to develop?

Gilligan

Who said that gender plays an important role in moral development?

Trust vs. Mistrust

What is the first challenge in Eriksons stage 1?

total institutions

Prisons are examples of what?

Kohlberg

Who applied Piaget's approach to moral development?

lifelong theory

What is Eriksons theory of development?

true

Children spend more time watching tv than socializing with parents? t/f

false

Mass media has a declining influence on people? t/f

self social experience

Where did Mead describe self development?

8

How many hours a day do people watch tv?

Children can escape supervision of parents

Why is a peer group important?

out of touch & less socially important

How to industrial societies describe old people?

institutionalized

An inmate who is stuck in prison is?

Goffman

Who said that in total institution the old identity is broken down & another is built?

female morality

Gilligan is associated with?

behaviorism

What did Watson come up with?

Stage 1 - Infancy (Birth - 18 months) - Trust vs. Mistrust
Stage 2 - Toddlerhood - Doubt vs. Shame
Stage 3 - Preschool - Initiative vs. Guilt
Stage 4 - Preadolescence - Industriousness vs. Inferiority
Stage 5 - Adolescence - Identity vs. Confusion
Stage 6 - Young Adulthood - Intimacy vs. Isolation
Stage 7 - Middle Adulthood - Difference vs. Self-Absorption
Stage 8 - Old Age - Integrity vs. Despair

Erik H. Erikson's 8 Stages of Development (study, not a question)

- According to Mead, developing the self is learning to take the role of the other
- Infants do so through imitation
- As children grow to use symbols/language, they do so by playing (assuming roles of significant others)
- They then move from simple play to complex games (by age 7, most kids can play team sports)
- The final stage involves us being able to see ourselves in terms of cultural norms as any member of our society might (the generalized other)

The Development of the Self (study only, not question)

Such as parents, who have special importance for socialization. As children learn to use language and other symbols, the self (said Mead) emerges as play, and play involves assuming roles of such significant others, helping kids see the world from others' points of view.

Significant Others (study, not a question)

The self

What is the concept developed by George Herbert Mead, it is the part of an individual's personality composed of self-awareness and self-image?

1) The self is not there at birth: it develops.
2) The self develops only with social experience.
3) Social experience is the exchange of symbols.
4) Seeking meaning leads us to imagine the intentions of others.
5) Understanding intention requires imagining the situation from the other's point of view.
6) By taking the role of the other, we become self-aware.

George Herbert Mead's Theory of the Social Self (study only)

True

Carol Gilligan said that boys and genders use different standards of rightness. t/f

- Lawrence Kohlberg studied the development of moral reasoning
- 1) Precoventional - the first early stage where rightness reflets what feels good
- 2) Conventional - Appears by the teen years and defines right/wrong by norms
- 3) Post-conventional - The final stage when people move beyond their society's norms and operate according to their own ethics

Lawrence Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development (study only)

True

In Harlow's study, The monkeys with wire-mothers covered with terry-cloth did better, as they formed an attachment to the cloth. T/F

Play

Taking on the role of significant others in Mead's development of self

Games

Taking on the role of several others at once, when generalized other begins.

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