The Equal Pay Act of 1963
prohibits sex-based wage discrimination between men and women in the same establishment who perform jobs that require substantially equal skill, effort and responsibility under similar working condition
Disciplinary Beauty Practices
Women are not forced to take part in but Women participate in to maintain standards of beauty, Cost women time, energy and money
the process wherby normal functions of the body come to be seen as indicative of disease
Native American Women
are among the largest group of women in the U.S. Society who have been sterilized against their will
Hyde Ammendment and Suprem Court Ruling ( Beal v Doe, 1977)
Decide whether medicaid funds would be spent on abortion
Defense of Marriage Act 1996
Federal law defining marriage as man-woman & declaring that no state is forced to recognize same-sex marriage (unconstitutional exception to full faith & credit clause?)
Double Standard of Conduct
boys tend to be given more freedom in the family than girls to explore and experience their sexuality
The fact that companies provide better and more flexible family options for their higher paid employess
white, middle-class, heterosexual ,abled, thin, and a young adult, which is normalized or taken for granted such that we often forget that whites racialized and men are gendered.
That if people are properly motivated and willing to work hard, can pull themselves up by their bootstraps.
a right reserved exclusively by a particular person or group (especially a hereditary or official right)
Systemic and/or individual prejudice against or oppression of people on the basis of their lesser wealth, education, or social status.
refers to the idea that being heterosexual is a persons default sexuality
The characteristics that a person portrays in order to show whether he or she is feminine or masculine
one whose sense of gender identity is at odds witht heir physical sex, but they have not sought surgery
sets of implicit rules that specify proper sexual behavior for a person in a given situation, varying with the person's gender, age, religion, social status, and peer group
sexual self schemas
ideas and beliefs about sexual aspects of the self that are established from the past and present experiences, and guide sexual feelings/behavior
the prohibition on interracial marriage, cohabitation, or sexual interaction. one of the Black Codes
feelings of sexual attraction to members of the same sex- almost always precedes lesbian and gay activity by several years
the assumption of heterosexuality as the norm or normative behavior in any given setting
disciplinary beauty practices
everyday routine behaviors that maintain the body (shaving, makeup, etc) that are taken for granted disciplinary actions because of social control
Women's bodies are seen as things/objects; women are bodies, not people. Turning a person into a thing is often the first step toward justifying violence against her. Women are dehumanized; not life-like. A woman is presented as a body, not a person; she has no personality.
definition of behavior as a medical problem and mandating the medical profession to provide some kind of treatment for it
decisions that restrict certain people or groups of people to polluted or degraded environments on the basis of race.
government policies which attempt to force people to undergo surgical sterilization. part of eugenics programs intended to prevent the reproduction and multiplication of members of population considered to be carriers of defective genetics traits. crime against humanity. first country to concertedly undertake forced sterilization programs for the purpose of eugenics. black women were sterilized against their will in many states, often without their knowledge while they were in a hospital for other reasons (e.g. childbirth) native american women first state Michigan in 1897.
the study of methods of improving genetic qualities by selective breeding (especially as applied to human mating)
masculine privilege in families
traditional family form where males have more access to resources and power
the issue raised when women who hold traditionally female jobs are paid less than men for working at jobs requiring comparable skill
The tendency for occupations mainly held by men to have substantially higher pay rates and status as compared to those of mainly held by women.
Vertical sex segregation illustrates the ideology of male supremacy and the cultural assumption that men are the better leaders and should be the ones in charge. In a vertical sense, women are not present in the apex that consists of the corporate elite, upper management and professional occupations. As a result, there have been more consorted efforts to move women into these occupations, including engineering, lawyers and doctors.
a ceiling based on attitudinal or organizational bias in the work force that prevents minorities and women from advancing to leadership positions
the process by which men in traditionally female professions benefit from an unfair rapid rise within an organization
Process where women are encouraged into leadership positions in failing organizations and companies and are disproportionately set up to fail professionally.
Quid Pro quo
Sexual harassment in which employment outcomes are linked to the individual granting sexual favors.
hostile work environment
a form of sexual harassment in which unwelcome and demeaning sexually related behavior creates an intimidating and offensive work environment
the double burden- work outside the home followed by child care and housework- that many women face and few men share equitably
jobs traditionally filled by women; service occupations, little pay or prestige (waitress, secretary, teacher, etc.)
describes the way in which women become objects of sexual objects in films and other media; to look at and judge someone's appearance is active, and therefore masculine, but to be the object of that gaze and judgement is passive, and therefore feminine
The threat of rape and sexual assault that controls a woman's life whether or not she is actually physically or sexually violated
a statutory offense that provides that it is a crime to knowingly cause another person to engage in an unwanted sexual act by force or threat
comments, gestures, or physical contact of sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated, and unwelcome.
the repeated following, harassment, or threatening of an individual to frighten or cause him or her harm
Entitlements associated with masculinity produce a range. All sexist behaviors are arranged along a continuum from unexamined feelings of superiority over women, to rape at the other end.
Ex: sexist jokes at the front of the spectrum and rape/femicide at the end.
global women trafficking
women being sold to brothels for mens sexual pleasures. Women are seen as a commodity and not people
trafficking of women, largest slave trade in history; becoming a growing problem, forcing adults or children to engage in sex acts against their will
US Violence Against Women Act
The Act provides $1.6 billion toward investigation and prosecution of violent crimes against women, imposes automatic and mandatory restitution on those convicted, and allows civil redress in cases prosecutors chose to leave unprosecuted.
A legal strategy based on claims that racial minorities are subjected disproportionately to environmental hazards.
Convention for the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women; adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1979, came into force in September 1981; the United States remains the only developed state which has not ratified the convention
the process whereby normal functions of the body come to be seen as indicative of disease
Native American Women
are among the largest group of women in U.S. society who have been sterilized against their will
Women living at or near poverty
are 3 times as likely to be in poor or fair health than high income women
Hyde Ammendment and Beal vs Doe Ruling
gave states the right to decide whether medicaid would be spen on abortion
Househols headed by women
have about half the income and less than a third of the wealth of other US families
Double Standard of Sexual Conduct
Boys tend to be given more freedom in the family than girls to explore and experience their sexuality