Women Studies Final

106 terms by hsche002 

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androcentrisim

implies putting men on center and confusing maleness with humanity

patriarchy

A society dominated by Males and all important decisions are made by Males

feminism

the belief that women should possess the same political and economic rights as men

feminist backlash

anger or resentment towards feminist

Liberal Feminism Startegy

Working with the system for change

Primary focus of a third wave feminist agenda

sexuality and identity

The Equal Pay Act of 1963

prohibits sex-based wage discrimination between men and women in the same establishment who perform jobs that require substantially equal skill, effort and responsibility under similar working condition

The United Nations reconizes crimes against women

as a hate crime

Homophobia

the fear and dislake of lesbians and gay men

Misogyny

The hatred of women

Androgynous

A person that displays a lack of gender differentiation or a blending of gender

Gender Socialization

the process by which we learn gender

Sexual Self Schemas

Cognitive generalizations about sexual aspects of the self

Men are associated with

Air and Spirit

Women are associated with

Nature and the earth

Biiological Determinism

Biology determines culture

Disciplinary Beauty Practices

Women are not forced to take part in but Women participate in to maintain standards of beauty, Cost women time, energy and money

Young Women 15-25

Most susceptible age group to having a eating disorder

Medicalization

the process wherby normal functions of the body come to be seen as indicative of disease

Native American Women

are among the largest group of women in the U.S. Society who have been sterilized against their will

Hyde Ammendment and Suprem Court Ruling ( Beal v Doe, 1977)

Decide whether medicaid funds would be spent on abortion

Defense of Marriage Act 1996

Federal law defining marriage as man-woman & declaring that no state is forced to recognize same-sex marriage (unconstitutional exception to full faith & credit clause?)

Double Standard of Conduct

boys tend to be given more freedom in the family than girls to explore and experience their sexuality

Classism

The fact that companies provide better and more flexible family options for their higher paid employess

Mythical Norm

white, middle-class, heterosexual ,abled, thin, and a young adult, which is normalized or taken for granted such that we often forget that whites racialized and men are gendered.

bootstrap myth

That if people are properly motivated and willing to work hard, can pull themselves up by their bootstraps.

looksism

discimination against a person based on his/her failure to realize current beauty ideals

racism

the prejudice that members of one race are intrinsically superior to members of other races

privilege

a right reserved exclusively by a particular person or group (especially a hereditary or official right)

classism

Systemic and/or individual prejudice against or oppression of people on the basis of their lesser wealth, education, or social status.

ageism

prejudice and discrimination based on a person's age

ableism

a form of discriminatory behavior against persons with mental or physical limitations

compulsory heterosexuality

refers to the idea that being heterosexual is a persons default sexuality

sex

the biological distinction between females and males

Gender

The characteristics that a person portrays in order to show whether he or she is feminine or masculine

gender performance

the sense of acting a certain way to show masculine or feminine qualities

machismo

an emphasis on male strength, high sexuality, and dominance

double bind

...

transgendered

one whose sense of gender identity is at odds witht heir physical sex, but they have not sought surgery

sexual scripts

sets of implicit rules that specify proper sexual behavior for a person in a given situation, varying with the person's gender, age, religion, social status, and peer group

sexual self schemas

ideas and beliefs about sexual aspects of the self that are established from the past and present experiences, and guide sexual feelings/behavior

anti-miscegenation

the prohibition on interracial marriage, cohabitation, or sexual interaction. one of the Black Codes

homoeroticism

feelings of sexual attraction to members of the same sex- almost always precedes lesbian and gay activity by several years

heteronormativity

the assumption of heterosexuality as the norm or normative behavior in any given setting

disciplinary beauty practices

everyday routine behaviors that maintain the body (shaving, makeup, etc) that are taken for granted disciplinary actions because of social control

objectification

Women's bodies are seen as things/objects; women are bodies, not people. Turning a person into a thing is often the first step toward justifying violence against her. Women are dehumanized; not life-like. A woman is presented as a body, not a person; she has no personality.

medicalization

definition of behavior as a medical problem and mandating the medical profession to provide some kind of treatment for it

environmental racism

decisions that restrict certain people or groups of people to polluted or degraded environments on the basis of race.

Forced Sterilization

government policies which attempt to force people to undergo surgical sterilization. part of eugenics programs intended to prevent the reproduction and multiplication of members of population considered to be carriers of defective genetics traits. crime against humanity. first country to concertedly undertake forced sterilization programs for the purpose of eugenics. black women were sterilized against their will in many states, often without their knowledge while they were in a hospital for other reasons (e.g. childbirth) native american women first state Michigan in 1897.

eugenics

the study of methods of improving genetic qualities by selective breeding (especially as applied to human mating)

masculine privilege in families

traditional family form where males have more access to resources and power

comparable worth

the issue raised when women who hold traditionally female jobs are paid less than men for working at jobs requiring comparable skill

horizontal segregation

The tendency for occupations mainly held by men to have substantially higher pay rates and status as compared to those of mainly held by women.

vertical segregation

Vertical sex segregation illustrates the ideology of male supremacy and the cultural assumption that men are the better leaders and should be the ones in charge. In a vertical sense, women are not present in the apex that consists of the corporate elite, upper management and professional occupations. As a result, there have been more consorted efforts to move women into these occupations, including engineering, lawyers and doctors.

glass ceiling

a ceiling based on attitudinal or organizational bias in the work force that prevents minorities and women from advancing to leadership positions

glass escalator

the process by which men in traditionally female professions benefit from an unfair rapid rise within an organization

glass precipice

Process where women are encouraged into leadership positions in failing organizations and companies and are disproportionately set up to fail professionally.

Quid Pro quo

Sexual harassment in which employment outcomes are linked to the individual granting sexual favors.

hostile work environment

a form of sexual harassment in which unwelcome and demeaning sexually related behavior creates an intimidating and offensive work environment

double day of work

working a job then coming home and working in the home.

second shift

the double burden- work outside the home followed by child care and housework- that many women face and few men share equitably

pink collar

jobs traditionally filled by women; service occupations, little pay or prestige (waitress, secretary, teacher, etc.)

male gaze

describes the way in which women become objects of sexual objects in films and other media; to look at and judge someone's appearance is active, and therefore masculine, but to be the object of that gaze and judgement is passive, and therefore feminine

sexual terrorism

The threat of rape and sexual assault that controls a woman's life whether or not she is actually physically or sexually violated

rape

the crime of forcing a woman to submit to sexual intercourse against her will

sexual abuse

a statutory offense that provides that it is a crime to knowingly cause another person to engage in an unwanted sexual act by force or threat

sexual harrasment

comments, gestures, or physical contact of sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated, and unwelcome.

stalking

the repeated following, harassment, or threatening of an individual to frighten or cause him or her harm

rape spectrum

Entitlements associated with masculinity produce a range. All sexist behaviors are arranged along a continuum from unexamined feelings of superiority over women, to rape at the other end.
Ex: sexist jokes at the front of the spectrum and rape/femicide at the end.

global women trafficking

women being sold to brothels for mens sexual pleasures. Women are seen as a commodity and not people

forced prostitution

trafficking of women, largest slave trade in history; becoming a growing problem, forcing adults or children to engage in sex acts against their will

US Violence Against Women Act

The Act provides $1.6 billion toward investigation and prosecution of violent crimes against women, imposes automatic and mandatory restitution on those convicted, and allows civil redress in cases prosecutors chose to leave unprosecuted.

backlash

an adverse reaction to some political or social occurrence

environmental justice

A legal strategy based on claims that racial minorities are subjected disproportionately to environmental hazards.

CEDAW

Convention for the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women; adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1979, came into force in September 1981; the United States remains the only developed state which has not ratified the convention

Medicalization

the process whereby normal functions of the body come to be seen as indicative of disease

Native American Women

are among the largest group of women in U.S. society who have been sterilized against their will

Women living at or near poverty

are 3 times as likely to be in poor or fair health than high income women

Roe vs Wade

removed the states ban on abortion

Comstock Laws

Regulates contraception

Hyde Ammendment and Beal vs Doe Ruling

gave states the right to decide whether medicaid would be spen on abortion

Mid-1960's

the supreme court removed the ban on contraceptives for married persons

1973

The supreme court ruling that removed the ban on abortion occurred

Househols headed by women

have about half the income and less than a third of the wealth of other US families

The defense of marriage act

was passed in 1996

In US Families power is assigned

primarily according to gender and age

Double Standard of Sexual Conduct

Boys tend to be given more freedom in the family than girls to explore and experience their sexuality

Women perform

2/3's of household labor

Women earn

76% of mens median salaries

1993 Ruling on Sexual Harassment said

women did not have to prove they sufferd harm

Women of Color earn

64% of mens median salaries

As of 2005

there were 9 fortune 500 women presidents or CEO"s

Unionized women workers earn

31% more than nonunionized women workers

Women gain

14 hours of additional housework per week when they get married

Piano

is generally considered an appropriate instrument for a women to play

Laura Mulvey

Identfied the concept of the male gaze

GHB

is a kind of date rape drug

10% of all sexual abuse

involves a husband or ex-husband

Stranger Rapes

Are more likely to be reported than acquaintance rapes

1/5 high school girls

report being physically or sexually abused by a boyfriend

Direct Incest

bouncing a child against an erection

1/4 women in college campuses

have experienced sexual violence of some kind

70%-80%

of rapes occuring on campus had alcohol involved

Rape Myths

Women are partly to blame
Reports happen less frequently than often

75% of sexual assaults

are commited by a friend, acquaintance, husband or family member

Theme for femenist inspired integrity

Rights for personal choice

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