The Appendicular Skeleton

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Appendicular skeleton

consists of 126 bones
two parts: upper and lower

Pectoral Girdle

this area of appendicular skeleton stabilizes the upper limbs.
It has two parts: the scapula and the clavicle

scapula and clavicle

two parts of the pectoral girdle

Scapula

this part of the pectoral girdle and is the major attachment site for muscles.

Clavicle

this part of the pectoral girdle is the bony link between the sternum and the scapula

Pelvic Girdle

this area of the appendicular skeleton positions and stabilizes the lower limbs, transfers weight of the body to the legs, and is make up of two hip bones, known as the two coxae bones.

Coxa

this component of the appendicular skeleton is made up of 3 fused bones.

Illium ischium and pubis

three bones that make up a coxa bone

illium

this is the large, superior, winglike bone of the coxa

ischium

this is the posterior and inferior part of the coxa bone

pubis

this is the anterior and inferior part of the coxa bone

acetabulum

this is known as the hip socket.
it is formed by the fusion of all three of the fused coxa bones.

2 coxa, sacrum, coccyx

name of the 4 bones that make up the pelvis

height, width, pelvic outlet, pubic angle

Characteristics that differ between makes and females in terms of their pelvis
HINT: there are 4

males

the gender that has a pubic angle of less than 90 degrees

females

the gender that has a pubic angle of greater than 90 degrees

articulations

this is the term for the point of contact between 2 bones

articulations

another word for joints

structure

this determines the degree and type of movement in terms of articulation

movement

this is the term for flexibility or range of motion

strong

immobile joints are this

weak

moblie joints are this

degree of movement

the functional classifications of joints is based on this

Synarthrosis

this is a type of functional classification of joints that is immovable and tightly connected (this is due to fibrous connective tissue)

synarthrosis

examples of this type of functional classification of joints includes sutures and gomphosis

suture

type of synarthrosis that is made of fibrous joint.
this is cranial bones

gomphosis

type of synarthrosis that is made of fibrous joint.
Example of this is teeth.

Amphiarthrosis

this is a type of functional classification of joints that is movable.

Amphiarthrosis

examples of this type of functional classification of joints includes symphysis and syndesmosis

symphysis

this is a type of amphiarthrosis that is made up of fibrocartilaginous pads.
Examples of this include the vertebrae (intervertebral discs) and pubic bones (the pubic symphysis)

syndesmosis

type of amphiarthrosis that is made up of ligamentous.
Example includes tibiofibular joint

Diarthrosis

a synonym for synovial
type of functional classification of joints that is highly movable.
it involves long bones and provides the largest range of motion
EX: shoulder, hip, elbow, phalanges

synovial joint

type of joint (synonymous with diarthrosis)
contains 4 parts

articular cartilage, synovial capsule, synovial membrane, synovial fluid

4 parts of synovial joint

articular cartilage

part of synovial joint that contains slippery hyaline cartilage

synovial capsule

part of synovial joint that surrounds the joint by a fibrous dense irregular connective tissue

synvovial membrane

part of synovial joint that lines capsules and secretes synovial fluid

synovial fluid

part of synovial joint that lubricates, absorbs shock, and distributes nutrients and waste.

fat pads meniscus ligaments bursa

these are the parts of the synovial joint accessory structures

fat pads

parts of a synovial joint that fills spaces of a joint

meniscus

part of synovial joint that is extra fibrocartilaginous pads

ligaments

part of synovial joint that reinforces and strengthens joints. it has two parts; extracapsular and intracapsular

bursa

part of synovial joint that is a synovial puch. it functions in separating moving parts.

Kinesiology

the study of the mechanics of movement

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