1. Describe proxy wars
conflicts between competing factions in which rival superpowers provided support
2. The "Brazilian Solution" refers to
the combination of dictatorship, violent repression, and government promotion of industrialization
3. Salvador Allende sought to implement social reforms in what country?
4. The "Dirty War" was fought in
5. Which United States president worked to re-establish Panamanian sovereignty in the Canal Zone?
6. The "Contras" were
Cuban terrorists organized by Castro to avenge the Bay of Pigs
7. A poor policy decision by the Argentinean military junta that precipitated its collapse was the
1982 Falkland Island war with Great Britain
8. In 1982, _______ could not make its debt payments, which triggered a world financial crisis.
9. Which of the following cannot be said about Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini?
He opened the electoral process to all Iranians [NOT]
10. Which of the following was not something the U.S. hoped to gain by selling arms to Iran in the 1980's?
They were not trying to benefit from it [NOT]
11. Which country was engaged in an "unwinnable war" in 1978 with Afghanistan?
12. Which of the following is not one of the "Asian Tigers?"
13. All of the Newly Industrialized Economies (NIEs) share the characteristic of having
government sponsorship and protection
14. Under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, China
both [A] and [B]
15. As a response to the protests that culminated in Tiananmen Square, the Chinese government
16. Which is most true of Communist states by the 1980s and 1990s?
deep division had appeared among them
17. The policy of restructuring the Soviet Union as authorized by Mikhail Gorbachev was known as
18. Solidarity was
[ALL OF THESE]
19. The playwright who was elected president of Czechoslovakia in 1990 was
20. East Germany was united with West Germany in
21. What powerful force ultimately caused the USSR to dissolve?
22. The result of the hard line Communist coup against Gorbachev was that
[ALL OF THESE]
23. The Soviet Union was dissolved in what year
24. The cause of the Persian Gulf War was Saddam Hussein's
[ALL OF THE ABOVE]
25. In 1798, Thomas Malthus argued that
population growth would outstrip food production
26. Societies that have made the "demographic transition" have
lowered fertility rates
27. Developing nations that sponsored pronatalist policies often believed that
larger populations meant more national power
28. Twenty-eight million of the forty million people infected with the HIV virus live in
29. What explains the low birthrates of older industrial nations?
30. Which of the following countries has a declining life expectancy?
[NONE OF THESE]
31. What two nations account for approximately one third of the world's population?
India and China
32. Older industrial countries such as Sweden suffer from a population burden of
an aging population and declining numbers of working-age people
33. Because Japan has the oldest population of any industrial nation, it has
created technological solutions to labor shortages
34. Increases in global immigration are due in large part to
growing populations in developing nations
35. Despite the unprecedented global economic growth since 1945, the majority of the world's population
remains in poverty
36. The growing gap between rich and poor nations is exemplified by the fact that one billion people in the world
lived on less than $500 per year in 2001
37. In the United States greater wealth inequality was in part to
tax reform policies of Ronald Reagan and George W. Bush
38. Internal migration in developing nations resulted in
migrants enjoying a better life in cities
39. Although immigrants from developing nations bring many benefits to a new country, they
faced anti-immigrant discrimination and resentment
40. Anti-immigrant feelings in industrialized nations are mostly due to
an ethically derived sense of nationality
41. Which of the following is not true about technological innovation after World War II?
It caused a decline in agricultural production due to focus on technology, leading to widespread starvation [NOT]
42. As Western economies recovered from World War II, most
consumers sought new goods to purchase
43. The technology that best symbolizes the innovations of the last fifty years is
44. The primary agent of technological change is the
45. Which country has arguably the worst environmental record?
the former Soviet Union
46. Describe some efforts to preserve the environment
[ALL OF THESE]