URINARY ORGANS include:
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
URINE: FORMED? FLOWS THROUGH? STORED? ELIMINATED VIA?
in the kidneys and flows through the ureters to the urinary bladder, which stores urine until t is eliminated from the body through the urethra
bean shaped, retro peritoneal.....either of two bean-shaped excretory organs that filter wastes (especially urea) from the blood and excrete them and water in urine
at waist level, between 12th thoracic vertebra and 3rd lumbar
WHAT PASES THROUGH THE RENAL HILUS?
the ureter, renal arteries, veins, nerves lymphatic
the concave surface of each kidney faces the vertebral column and contains a vertical fissure called the renal hilud
HOW IS KIDNEY ATTACHED TO THE ABDONINAL WALL?
renal fascia attaches it
Outermost layer of the kidney composed of dense irregular tissue; anchors kidney to the back of the body wall
a smooth transparent membrane the adheres tightly to the external aspect of the kidney, outside layer. think connective tirruse keeping substances inside.
used for padding and protection
3 MAIN REGIONS OF THE KIDNEY
cortex, medulla, sinus
structural and function units of the kidney that form urine
URINE DRAINS INTO....?
pappillary ducts that exit through the openings in the renal papilla
a space or cavity that is adjacent to the medulla and extends to the renal hilus
small cup shaped cavities into which urine first enters. receives from the urine duct
HOW MANY MINOR AND MAJOR CALYCES?
8-18minor and 2-3 major
drains into the renal pelvis, which is continuous wiht the ureter
WHAT TRAVELS THROUGH THE RENAL SINUS?
BLOOD VESSELS, LYMPHATIC, AND NERVES...the rest is adipose that fills it
25-30 cm long, behind peritoneum, 1-10mm diameter
HOW IS URINE PROPELLED THROUGH URETERS BY...?
peristalsis, hydrostatic pressure, gravity
saclike organ in which urine is stored before being excreted
duct through which urine is discharged in most mammals and which serves as the male genital duct
formed by 3 layer of muscles contracts and compress urinary bladder to expel urine into urethra
Ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach
inferior surface of urinary bladder contains 3 openings that form the trigonre
2 posterior openings
INTERNAL URETHRAL ORIFICE
anterior opening to the urethra
URINARY BLADDER: MALE VS WOMAN: LOCATION
males: bladdar is anterior to the rectum and posteror to the pubic symphysis. in females:urinary bladdar is anterior to the vagina, inferior to the uterus and posterior to the pubic symthesis
carries urine from the internal urethral oriffice to the external urethral oriffice
INTERNAL URETHRAL SPHINCTER
located at the neck of the urinary bladder, these smooth muscle fibers provide involuntary control over the discharge of urine from the bladder
EXTERNAL URETHRAL SPHINCTER
sphincter muscle or valve that is more inferiorly located on the bladder. helps to control the outflow of urine from the bladder. This sphincter is voluntarily controlled
detrusor muscle contracts and forces urine out of the urinary bladder, and the internl and external urethral sphincters relax to allow passage of urine.
FEMALE URETHRAL LENGTH
MALE URETHRAL LENGTH
MALE URETHRA: REGIONS?
prostatic urethra, membranous urethra, spongy (penile) urethra
1 million nephrons in kidney filter blood from urine. it contains a RENAL CORPUS FILTRATE that filter blood and a RENAL TUBULE that modifies the filtrate o form urine
RENAL CORPUSCLE: LOCATED? CONSISTS OF?
located in the renal cortex. consists of glomerulus and a glomerular capsule, a cup shaped epithelial membrane surrounding the glomerulus
CAPSULAR SPACE/GLOMERULAR CAVITY
blood is foltered into here. it is not called FILTRATE and it drains into the renal tubule
RENAL TUBULE: 3 STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL SECTIONS
proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henle, distal convoluted tubule
distal convoluted tubules from several nephrons drain the liquid (now called urine) into COLLECTING DUCTS that descend through the renal pyraids and mrege to form larger PAPILLARY DUCTS
delivers systemic blood to the glomerulus
smaller in diameter. receives blood from the glomerulus. delivers blood to a second capillary bed, the PERITUBULAR CAPILLARY NETWORK that entwines the renal tubule
2 TYPES OF NEPHRONS
CORTICAL NEPHRON (short loops of Henle that descend slightly into the medulla) JUXTAMEDULLARY NEPHRON (long loops of Henle that extend deep into the medulla)
long capillary loops that extend from the efferent arteriole
KIDNEY: GLOMERULAR (BOWMANS) CAPSULE: COMPOSED OF?
visceral and parietal epithelial layer. both are simple squamous epithelium
KIDNEY: VISCERAL LAYER:CONTAINS?
forms part of the filtration membrane, is adjacent to the glomerulus. contains podocytes (foot like projections of simple squamous epithelium)
KIDNEY: PARIETAL LAYER
forms a funnel-like structure that collects the filtrate within the capsular space.
URETERS: COMPOSED OF3 LAYERS?
MUCOSA that lines the lumen, MUSCULARIS a msucular layer, OUTER ADVENTITIAL LAYER
contains Transitional epithelium that can distend to accommodate urine, and a n underlying lamina propria of areolar connective tissue
MUSCULARIS: CONTAINS WHAT KIND OF MUSCLE?
the function of the muscularis layer, moves urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder
secures the ureters in place
EPITHELIUM OF MUCOSA IS?
T or F: urinary bladder contains same layers as the ureter
EPUTHELIUM OF MUSCULARIS?
T OR F: contraction of the muscularis layer forces urine out of the urinary bladder
T OR F: the urethra consists of a mucosa surrounded by a muscularis layer of circular smooth muscle
CHANGES IN EPITHELIUM ALONG THE COURSE OF THE URETHRA
near urinary bladder: transitional, distally: becomes stratified columnar or pseudo stratified columnar, near the external urethral orifice: stratified squamous epithelium