Veterinary Laboratory Procedures

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What does OSHA stand for?

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

What type of microscopes do most labs use?

Compound

What are the two types of lens systems?

1. Ocular
2. Objective

The ocular system is located in the eyepieces. They magnify an image _ on their own.

10X

Which lens magnifies 4X?

Scanning

Which lens magnifies 40X?

High Dry

Which lens magnifies 100X?

Oil Immersion

Which lens magnifies 10X?

Low Power

What type of oil should never be used with the oil immersion objective?

Mineral

What is the formula for total magnification?

Ocular magnification (10X) X Objective magnification

How will an object appear when you look into the scope?

Upside down and reversed

When the stage is moved to the left, the object appears to move to the _.

Right

The light is focused by raising or lowering the _.

Condenser

What is used to separate substances of different densities that are in a solution?

Centrifuge

When solids and liquids are present, the solid is called the sediment and the liquid is called the _.

Supernatant

What type of centrifuge is "swinging arm"? The specimen cups hang vertically at rest and swing out horizontally when spinning.

Horizontal

What type of centrifuge has tubes held at a fixed angle? Can only hold one tube size and must be balanced.

Angled Centrifuge Head

How should you load the centrifuge?

Open ends toward the center

What is another name for the Total Solids Meter? Used to measure the refractive index of a solution (tells you the concentration of solid material in a liquid).

Refractometer

What is used to calibrate the refractometer?

Distilled water

What does sp stand for on a refractometer?

Serum

What does ug stand for on a refractometer?

Urine

What is used to measure various chemical levels in the blood?

Chemistry Analyzers

What measures the amount of light transmitted through a solution? The degree of color change is proportional to the solution's concentration.

Photometry

_ machines use reagent impregnated strips, slides, or pads. The color change is read on the pad, strip, or slide.

Dry

What machines count the number of red blood cells, white blood cells & platelets?

Hematology Analyzer

What machine has the cells pass through an aperture that measures the size of the cells & then counts them as certain cell types based on that size?

Impedance Analyzer

What temperature should an incubator maintain?

38° C (98.6° F)

What are the two main types of pipettes?

1. Transfer
2. Graduated

What type of pipette is used to measure a liquid?

Graduated

What type of pipette is useful when exact measurements are not needed?

Transfer

The magnitude of random errors & the reproducibility of results.

Precision

How closely results agree with the true value of the constituent.

Accuracy

Accuracy & Precision

Reliability

Errors that happen before you run the test.

Preanalytical

Errors that occur during analysis.

Analytical

What does blood do?

1. Carries oxygen to tissue
2. Carries carbon dioxide away from tissue
3. Carries nutrients to tissue

What are leukocytes?

White Blood Cells

What are erythrocytes?

Red Blood Cells

What are thrombocytes?

Platelets

The liquid portion of the blood that the cells are suspended in. It makes up 45 - 78% of blood.

Plasma

What is blood that has not clotted? It is either in circulation or it has an anticoagulant added.

Whole blood

A chemical that when added to whole blood prevents or delays clotting.

Anticoagulant

What anticoagulant is used when chemical testing is performed? It is not good for whole blood.

Heparin

What anticoagulant is used when hematologic studies are done because it does not interfere with morphology?

EDTA

_ is plasma minus fibrinogen. To get this sample you need to allow the blood to clot & then centrifuge it down.

Serum

What color tube contains EDTA?

Lavender/Purple

What color tube contains a gel that helps separate serum?

Marble/Tiger top

What color tube contains no additives?

Red

What color tube contains Heparin?

Green

Where do you collect blood from to test blood gas levels?

Arteries

_ samples are taken after a patient has eaten.

Postprandial

What does PCV stand for?

Packed Cell Volume

Where should the PCV ideally be between?

37 - 55%

What are the two types of microhematocrit tubes?

1. Red (heparinized)
2. Blue (plain)

The _ is read at the top of the RBC layer.

PCV

What does a low PCV indicate?

Anemia

What does an increased PCV indicate?

1. Dehydration
2. Splenic contraction

What does deep yellow plasma indicate?

Jaundice/Icteric

What does red/pink plasma indicate?

Hemolysis

What does cloudy plasma indicate?

Lipemia

_ plasma protein levels indicate overhydration, renal disease, gastrointestinal problems, or a diseased liver.

Decreased

_ plasma protein levels indicate dehydration or inflammation.

Increased

What does TS stand for?

Total Solids

What does TP stand for?

Total Protein

Blood smear: What should you look for in the feathered edge?

1. Heartworm
2. Platelet clumping

What is stain one? It fixes the slide and the slide should stay in this stain for at least 5 minutes.

95% Methanol

What color is stain two? It stains the RBCs. Dip the slide 25 times in stain two, allowing it to sit in the stain for 1 second between dips.

Red

What color is stain three? It stains the nuclei of the cells. Dip the slide 10 times, but don't let the slide sit in the stain between dips.

Dark purple

What objective do you use to look for heartworms on a blood smear?

10X

What objective do you use to look at WBCs on a blood smear?

100X

What is the normal lifespan of canine erythrocytes?

110 - 122 days

What is the normal lifespan of feline erythrocytes?

68 days

What is a variation in blood cell size?

Anisocytosis

What is a variation in blood cell shape?

Poikilocytosis

_ erythrocytes have a distinct area of central pallor. That means that when you stain them, the very center of the cell doesn't take up stain.

Canine

In canines the presence of _ indicates an immune mediated hemolytic anemia.

Spherocytes

There are _ types of white blood cells.

5

The _ nucleus is horse shoe shaped and lobulated. They contain enzymes that destroy bacteria and viruses. It is a granulocyte.

Neutrophil

What is the lifespan of a neutrophil?

6 - 7 hours

_ are associated with allergic and parasitic type reactions. They have red/light pink granules.

Eosinophils

A _ neutrophil is young.

Band

A _ neutrophil is old.

Hyper segmented

A _ neutrophil is mature. It has 3 - 5 segments.

Seg

_ are associated with allergy based reactions. The granules stain blue. Very rare cell.

Basophils

_ are the largest WBCs. The cytoplasm stains gray & contains vacuoles. They ingest or eat cellular debris in the body. It is a agranulocyte.

Monocytes

What do monocytes become once they enter tissue?

Macrophages

_ are the second most common WBC. The cytoplasm is very light blue and the nucleus is large and round. They are associated with antibody production. It is a agranulocyte.

Lymphocytes

How many WBCs do you count during a differential?

100

What color cap does a 25 gauge needle have?

Red

What color cap does a 22 gauge needle have?

Blue

What color cap does a 18 gauge needle have?

Green

What should you never do to whole blood?

Freeze it

Refrigerate whole blood samples that have not been tested within _ of collection.

1 hour

What is the light blue top tube used for?

Coagulation studies

What is the red top tube used for?

Chemistry with serum

What is the lavender/purple top tube used for?

CBC; Whole blood studies

What is the green top tube used for?

Chemistry with plasma

What is the gray top tube used for?

Test for glucose

What does EDTA stand for?

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

What color tube contains oxalates & citrates?

Light blue

What color tube contains sodium fluoride?

Gray

The production of blood cells & platelets.

Hematopoiesis

The production of leukocytes.

Leukopoiesis

The production of erythrocytes.

Erythropoiesis

The production of platelets.

Thrombopoiesis

What is EPO?

Erythropoietin

Where is EPO produced?

Kidneys

What test contains the following components: total RBC count, PCV, plasma protein concentration, total WBC count, blood film examination (WBC differential, RBC & WBC morphology, platelet estimation), hemoglobin concentrations, erythrocyte indices & a reticulocyte count when the patient is anemic?

Complete Blood Count (CBC)

What system is used to do a manual CBC?

Unopette

Manual CBC: _ cells touching the top or left lines.

Count

Manual CBC: _ cells touching the bottom or right lines.

Don't count

What color does plasma appear?

Clear to pale yellow

What does MCV stand for? It is the measure of the average size of the erythrocytes.

Mean Corpuscular Volume

What is the unit of volume for MCV?

Femtoliter

What is the formula for MCV?

MCV = PCV/RBC x 10

What does MCH stand for?

Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin

What is the formula for MCH?

MCH = Hb(g/dl)/RBC x 10

What does MCHC stand for?

Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration

What is the formula for MCHC?

MCHC = Hb(g/dl)/PCV% x 100

Decreased number of cells in the blood.

-penia

Increased number of cells in the blood.

-philia or -cytosis

Increased number of immature neutrophils in the blood.

Left shift

Neoplastic cells in the blood or bone marrow.

Leukemia

A condition that can be mistaken for leukemia. Characterized by marked leukocytosis & is usually the result of an inflammatory condition.

Leukemoid response

What WBC has pale pink cytoplasm with granules and a 3 - 5 lobe nucleus? Most numerous WBCs.

Neutrophil

What is the WBC that is equivalent to the Neutrophil in avians, reptiles, etc?

Heterophil

Immature neutrophil with a horseshoe shaped nucleus?

Band

What WBC has light blue cytoplasm and may contain pinkish-purple granules? 2nd most common WBC. Associated with antibody production.

Lymphocytes

What WBC has blue-gray cytoplasm, vacuoles and pink granules? Eat cellular debris. Largest WBC.

Monocyte

What WBC has a segmented nucleus & contains blue granules in the cytoplasm? Very rare cells associated with allergic reactions.

Basophil

What WBC has a segmented nucleus & contains red granules in the cytoplasm? Associated with allergic reactions. Usually only 1 or 2 found.

Eosinophil

Neutrophil with 5 or more lobes.

Hypersegmented

Large numbers of what cells can indicate leukemia?

Smudge

_ RBCs are round with no central pallor.

Feline

_ RBCS have a biconcave disk shape with a distinct area of central pallor.

Canine

Grouping of RBCs in stacks. Normal in equine & feline blood. Artifact in refrigerated blood.

Rouleaux

_ occurs in immune-mediated disorders. Can be confused with rouleaux.

Agglutination

How to differentiate agglutination from rouleaux: Add a drop of saline to the slide. If _, the cells will disperse.

Rouleaux

Variation in the size of RBCs.

Anisocytosis

Variation in the shape of RBCs.

Poikilocytosis

Large RBCs that stain a different color (usually bluish to bluish-red). Patients with altered lipid metabolism (liver disease).

Macrocytic polychromasia

Irregular spiculated RBCs, multiple & variable in size projections. Patients with altered lipid metabolism (liver disease).

Acanthocytes

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