HDFS 2400 - Chapter 7

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During a conversation, 4-year-old Maleeka will

adjust her speech to fit the age, sex, and social status of her listener.

Which of the following is supported by research on child care?

Good child care enhanses cognitive, language, and social development.

Which of the following is true about preschoolers' ablitiy to generate and follow a plan?

When parents encourage planning in everyday activities, they help children plan more effectively.

Metacognition involves

thinking about thought.

Compared with typically developing children, children with autism more often

use words to echo what others say and to get things they want, not to exchange ideas.

In industrialized nations, childhood diseases have declined dramatically during the past half century, largely as the result of

widespread immunization of infants and young children.

Contemporary researchers believe that make-believe play

not only reflects, but also contributes to, children's cognitive and social skills.

Vygotsky viewed __________ play as the ideal social context for fostering cognitive development in early childhood.

make-believe

Adults often provide indirect feedback about grammar by using _________, which restructures inaccurate speech into correct form.

a recast

According to Piaget, the most obvious change as children move from the sensorimotor to the preoperational stage is an increase in

representational, or symbolic, activity.

Which of the following is one reason the United States lags behind Denmark, Norway, Great Britain, Sweden, the Netherlands, and Canada in immunizations?

Many American children do not have the access to the healthcare they need.

Three-year-old J.T. understands that 3 is more than 2, and 2 is more than 1. J.T. is demonstrating a grasp of

ordinality.

The ______, located at the base of the brain, plays a critical role by releasing 2 hormones that induce growth

pituitary gland

Two-year-old Aidan says, "We saw two deers." Aidan is demonstrating

overregularization.

In Western societies, the role of equipping children with the skills they need to become competent workers is assigned to

schools.

Which of the following is true about computer use in early childhood?

Word-processing programs can support emergent literacy, enabling preschoolers to experiment with letters and words without having to struggle with handwriting.

Information processing focusses on __________ that children use to transform stimuli flowing into their mental systems.

mental strategies

Watching educational television programming like Sesame Street is associated with

getting higher grades, reading more books, and placing more value on achievement in high school.

Research shows that children more often use private speech when

tasks are appropriately challenging and they are confused about how to proceed.

In child-centered preschool programs, teachers

provide a variety of activities from which children select.

Five-year-old Chaim is participating in Piaget's three-mountains problem. When Chaim is asked to pick the picture that shows what the display looks like from the doll's perspective, he will most likely select the

picture that shows his own point of view.

A major reason that sustained attention improves in the preschool years is:

A steady gain in children's ability to inhibit impulses and keep their mind on completing goal.

As children's bodies become more streamlined and less top-heavy

Balance improves greatly.

Consistent with Vygotsky's ideas, research shows that ______________ predict(s) gains in children's thinking.

Adult cognitive support.

____________ is necessary for development of all body tissues except the central nervous system and the genitals.

Growth hormone.

A central component of the Head Start philosophy is

Parental involvement.

After putting on a Halloween mask and looking at her reflection in a mirror, 3-year-old Maggi is frightened. This is probably because Maggi

Has a fragile understanding of the appearance-reality distinction.

_________ contribute(s) to the decline of magical beliefs.

Familiarity with physical events and principles.

Children with autism

have narrow and overly intense interests.

Piaget's conservation-of-liquid task demonstrates that preoperational children's thinking is characterized by __________ in that they focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features.

Centration.

Which of the following is supported by research on individual differences in motor skills?

Parents tend to foster sex-stereotypic physical activities in their children.

______________ refers to the idea that certain physical characteristics of object remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes.

Conservation.

Which child is most likely to get his or her permanent teeth first?

Brooke, an obese girl.

Research on language development in early childhood shows that recasts and expansions

Model grammatical alternatives and encourage children to experiment with them.

General descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation are known as

Scripts.

Which of the following is supported by research on nutrition?

Preschoolers compensate for a meal in which they eat little by eating more at a later meal.

Between ages 2 and 6, the brain increases from ______ percent of its adult weight to _____ percent.

70; 90

In the United States, __________ are the leading cause of death among children more than 1 year old.

Motor vehicle collisions.

According to Piaget, magical thinking is common during preschool years because

Young children egocentrically assign human purposes to physical events.

In early childhood, on average, children add ____ inches in height and _____ pounds in weight each year.

2 & 3

X-rays of epiphyses enable doctors to estimate childrens

Skeletal age

An estimated 30 percent of U.S. preschoolers have ____________, a figure that rises to 60 percent by age 18.

Tooth decay

Between ages 2 and 6, the brain increases from ______ percent of its adult weight to _____ percent.

70; 90

EEG and fMRI measures of neural activity in various cortical regions reveal

Especially rapid growth from early to middle childhood in the frontal lobe

For most children, the left cerebral hemisphere

Is especially active between 3 and 6 years and then levels off

In contrast to activity in the left hemisphere, activity in the right cerebral hemisphere

Increases steadily throughout early and middle childhood

_______ skills increase at an astonishing pace in early childhood, whereas ______ skills develop gradually over childhood and adolescence.

Language; spatial

_______ may profoundly affect handedness.

Prenatal events

The _____________ aids in balance and control of body movement.

Cerebellum

Fibers linking the __________ to the __________ grow and myelinate from birth through the preschool years, contributing to dramatic gains in motor coordination.

Cerebellum; cerebral cortex

Casey suffered damage to his cerebellum. Casey will most likely display both _______ and __________ deficits.

motor; cognitive

The ___________, located at the base of the brain, plays a critical role by releasing two hormones that induce growth.

pituitary gland

Thyroid-stimulating hormone prompts the thyroid gland in the neck to release __________, which is necessary for brain development and for growth hormone to have its full impact on body size.

thyroxine

With the transition to early childhood, many children

become unpredictable, picky eaters.

Which of the following is supported by research on nutrition?

Preschoolers compensate for a meal in which they eat little by eating more at a later meal.

Four-year-old Erin is a picky eater. How can Erin's parents encourage her to eat a new food?

Repeatedly expose her to the new food without any direct pressure to eat it.

Which of the following statements is true about childhood diseases?

Childhood diseases occur earlier in developing nations than in industrialized countries.

Worldwide, _____ percent of deaths of children under age 5 are due to infectious diseases.

70

__________, often caused by unsafe water and contaminated foods, leads to nearly 2 million childhood deaths each year.

Diarrhea

Bullous lives in a shantytown. His parents can decrease the risks of persistent diarrhea by

administering oral rehydration therapy when he is sick.

Oral rehydration therapy

saves the lives of millions of children every year.

Developmental impairments and deaths due to diarrhea can be prevented with oral rehydration therapy, which consists of

a solution of glucose, salt, and water.

About _____ percent of U.S. preschoolers lack essential immunizations.

23

__________ are the leading cause of childhood death in industrialized countries.

Unintentional injuries

In the United States, nearly ______ percent of childhood deaths and ______ percent of adolescent deaths result from injuries.

35; 50

In the United States, __________ are the leading cause of death among children more than 1 year old.

motor vehicle collisions

Boys are _____ times more likely to be injured than girls.

1.5

_______________ are strongly associated with childhood injury.

Poverty, single parenthood, and low parental education

Which of the following is supported by research on childhood injuries?

U.S. children from advantaged families are at considerably greater risk for injury than children in Western Europe.

About ____ percent of U.S. parents fail to place their preschoolers in car safety seats.

40

By the end of the preschool years, most children

can tie their shoes.

Children first represent objects and events on paper by

making gestures that leave marks.

When ___________, preschoolers pictures become more comprehensible and detailed.

adults draw with children and point out the resemblances between drawings and objects

Preschoolers first attempts to print often involve writing

their own name.

Which of the following is true about sex differences in motor skills in early childhood?

Girls are ahead of boys in fine-motor skills.

Piaget acknowledged that ________ is a childs most flexible means of mental representation.

language

In early pretending, toddlers use

only realistic objects.

Which of the following is true about the development of make-believe play?

Older preoperational children are aware that make-believe play is a representational activity.

Preschoolers who _____________ are seen as more socially competent by their teachers.

spend more time in sociodramatic play

While playing house, 3-year-old Lindsay uses a straw as a bottle to feed her doll. Lindsay has begun to grasp

dual representation

Experiences with ___________ help preschoolers appreciate that one object can stand for another.

diverse symbols

According to Piaget, the most fundamental deficiency of preoperational thinking is

egocentrism

The belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentions, is called

animistic thinking

Five-year-old Chaim is participating in Piagets three-mountains problem. When Chaim is asked to pick the picture that shows what the display looks like from the dolls perspective, he will most likely select the

picture that shows his own point of view.

Three-year-old Will brings all of his action figures to preschool for show-and-tell because he does not want any of them to feel bad if they are left behind at home. Will is demonstrating

animistic thinking.

Four-year-old Jasmine is shown two identical tall glasses of water and agrees that they contain the same amount of liquid. When the liquid is poured into a short, wide container, she says that there is more water in the shorter container because it is all spread out. Jasmine is demonstrating

an inability to conserve.

Piaget's conservation-of-liquid task demonstrates that preoperational childrens thinking is characterized by __________ in that they focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features.

Centration

In Piaget's conservation-of-liquid problem, preoperational children are easily distracted by the ________ of objects and ignore the ___________ between events.

perceptual appearance; dynamic transformation

The most important illogical feature of preoperational thought is its

irreversibility.

Preoperational children have difficulty with ________________, which involves the organization of objects into groups based on similarities and differences.

hierarchical classification

One reason Piagetian problems do not always elicit responses reflecting preschoolers true cognitive abilities is that they contain

unfamiliar elements or too many pieces of information.

Follow-up research on preoperational thought indicates that

Most 3- and 4-year-olds believe in the supernatural powers of fairies, goblins, and other enchanted creatures.

Follow-up research indicates that even though preschoolers have difficulty with Piagetian class inclusion tasks, they

organize their everyday knowledge into nested categories at an early age.

Piaget called childrens self-directed utterances _________ speech, reflecting his belief that young children have difficulty taking the perspectives of others.

egocentric

According to Vygotsky, private speech during the preschool years

helps young children guide their behavior during challenging tasks.

According to Vygotsky, a parent engages in _______ when he adjusts the support offered to the child during a teaching session to fit the childs current level of performance..

scaffolding

_____________ refers to shared endeavors between more expert and less expert participants, without specifying the precise features of communication.

Guided participation

In village and tribal cultures, parents have little need to rely on conversation and play to teach children because

children spend their day in contact with adult work and start to assume mature responsibilities in early childhood.

Compared to their Western agemates, Yucatec Mayan preschoolers

seldom ask others for something interesting to do.

Itzel, a Yucatec Mayan preschooler, is hungry. She is most likely to

decide for herself when and how much to eat.

Information processing focuses on ___________that children use to transform stimuli flowing into their mental systems.

mental strategies

A major reason that sustained attention improves in the preschool years is

a steady gain in childrens ability to inhibit impulses and keep their mind on a competing goal

Which of the following is true about preschoolers ability to generate and follow a plan?

When parents encourage planning in everyday activities, they help children plan more effectively.

Recognition memory is

The ability to tell whether a stimulus is the same as or similar to one they have seen before.

Even preschoolers with good language skills recall poorly because

They are not skilled at using memory strategies.

Over spring vacation, Gerald goes to Disney World with his family. When he returns to school, Gerald excitedly tells his teacher about the trip. Gerald's representation of this personally meaningful, one-time event is known as

An autobiographical memory.

With regard to questions used to elicit children's autobiographical narratives, preschoolers who experience the ________ style recall _________ information about past events.

Elaborative; more.

Many studies indicate that __________ strongly predicts preschoolers grasp of false belief.

Language ability.

Children who spontaneously use, or who are trained to use, complex sentences with mental-state words are especially likely to pass __________ tasks.

False-belief

Childrens active efforts to construct literacy knowledge through informal experiences are called

Emergent literacy

Growing evidence reveals that children with autism have

A deficient theory of mind.

_____________ is a strong predictor of emergent literacy.

Phonological awareness

Mastery of _________ increases the efficiency of children's counting.

Cardinality

Pramada attends a child-care program that stresses formal academic training. As a result, Pramada is more likely to _____________ than peers who attend a child-centered program.

Display a decrease in motivation and emotional well-being

One reason that gains in IQ and achievement test scores from attending Head Start quickly dissolve is that many of the children

Enter low-quality public schools.

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