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systems planning phase

In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, the ____ usually begins with a formal request to the IT department, called a systems request, which describes problems or desired changes in an information system or a business process.

business model

A ____, or requirements model, describes the information that a system must provide.

enterprise applications

Examples of company-wide applications, called ____, include order processing systems, payroll systems, and company communications networks.

Modeling

____ is a systems development technique that produces a graphical representation of a concept or process that systems developers can analyze, test, and modify.

O-O

Whereas structured analysis treats processes and data as separate components, ____ combines data and the processes that act on the data into things called objects.

process-centered

Because it focuses on processes that transform data into useful information, structured analysis is called a(n) ____ technique.

waterfall model

Traditionally, the SDLC is pictured as a(n) ____, like that shown in the accompanying figure, where the result of each phase, which is called a deliverable or end product, flows sequentially into the next phase.

object-oriented analysis

The ____ method of developing systems produces code that is modular and reusable.

SDLC

Structured analysis is a traditional systems development technique that uses a series of phases, called the ____, to plan, analyze, design, implement, and support an information system.

provide direction, necessary resources, and performance feedback to supervisors and team leaders

In a typical company organizational model, middle managers ____.

adaptive

The ____ method of developing systems stresses team interaction and reflects a set of community-based values.

tries to decide how the system will be implemented before determining what the system is supposed to do

In launching a new information system, the greatest risk occurs when a company ____.

systems support and security

In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, during ____, the IT staff maintains, enhances, and protects the system.

methods

In object-oriented design, built-in processes called ____ can change an object's properties.

business process reengineering (BPR)

When companies attempt to simplify operations or reduce costs, a popular strategy is to have managers and systems analysts perform ____.

business process modeling

Systems analysts use a process called ____ to represent a company's operations and information needs.

Legacy systems

When planning an information system, a company must consider how a new system will interface with older systems, which are called ____.

24 months

Over 40 years ago, a concept called Moore's Law accurately predicted that computer processing power would double about every ____.

include e-mail, voice mail, fax, video conferencing, word processing, automated calendars, database management, spreadsheets, and high-seed Internet access

User productivity systems ____.

False

In a knowledge management system, a knowledge base consists of logical rules that identify data patterns and relationships.

False

Because they focus on a longer time frame, middle managers need less detailed information than top managers, but somewhat more than supervisors who oversee day-to-day operations.

True

A corporate culture is the set of beliefs, rules, traditions, values, and attitudes that define a company and influence its way of doing business.

True

In the systems analysis phase, the first step is requirements modeling, where business processes are investigated and what the new system must do is documented.

structured analysis

Roark has just joined the company and in his role as lead analyst, he will be responsible for determining which systems development method the team uses to create the new application for a major medical supplier.
It is a new day at the firm. Roark has been in place for a few weeks, strengthening the communications skills of his employees, getting them to work much better together. Now, the challenge that he faces is not an internal one; it lies with the client, which is increasingly showing itself to be incapable of sticking with decisions. Roark, based on his past experience with other clients like this, is afraid that the client will throw them a curveball and want to make changes late in the game — but that they also will be unwilling to absorb the costs of those changes. For this reason, Roark eliminates which of the following methods of development?

agile/adaptive methods

Roark has just joined the company and in his role as lead analyst, he will be responsible for determining which systems development method the team uses to create the new application for a major medical supplier.
After Roark has spent a week getting to know the members of the team, including their strengths and weaknesses, and what has worked well (and not so well) for this particular team in the past, one theme keeps recurring: the team has particularly weak communications skills. Which of the following methods, then, is he least likely to use, given what he knows about the disadvantages of each method?

economic

A feasibility study includes tests for ____ feasibility, which means that the projected benefits of the proposed system outweigh the estimated costs.

have complex instructions

A systems request form should not ____.

introduction

In a preliminary investigation report, the ____ contain(s) a brief description of the system, the name of the person or group performing the investigation, and the name of the person or group who initiated the investigation.

user-friendly system that improves employee job satisfaction

Examples of tangible benefits include all of the following except a(n) ____.

Customer relationship management (CRM)

____ components can provide automated response to sales inquiries, Web-based order processing, and online inventory tracking.

fishbone

A popular technique for investigating causes and effects is called a(n) ____ diagram, which is an analysis tool that represents the possible causes of a problem as a graphical outline.

Strategic

____ planning is the process of identifying long-term organizational goals, strategies, and resources.

determine the people to interview, establish objectives for the interview, develop interview questions, prepare for the interview

In sequence, the interviewing process involves a series of steps: ____, conduct the interview, document the interview, and evaluate the interview.

SWOT

During strategic planning, top managers ask a series of questions that is called a(n) ____ analysis because it examines a company's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

conduct interviews

The primary method of obtaining information during the preliminary investigation is to ____.

Will the proposed system decrease revenue for the company?

When assessing priorities for systems requests, a systems analyst should look for high scores in all of the following except ____.

one person's bias is more likely to affect the decisions

When evaluating systems requests, all of the following are disadvantages of a systems review committee except ____.

define project scope as clearly as possible

To avoid the problem of project creep, ____.

fishbone

When using a ____ diagram to investigate causes of a problem, an analyst first states the problem and then draws a main bone with sub-bones that represent possible causes of the problem.

discretionary

Projects where management has a choice in implementing them are called ____ projects.

True

Competition drives many information systems decisions.

False

Even if users have difficulty with a new system, it still will produce the expected benefits.

False

When interacting with users, a systems analyst should focus on difficulties instead of questioning users about additional capability they would like to have.

True

Whenever possible, a systems analyst should evaluate a proposed project based on tangible costs and benefits that represent actual (or approximate) dollar values.

Sales reps requested a more powerful sales analysis report.

As part of the annual report for the fiscal year just ended, Lara is working on a grid that summarizes the major decisions that the small business for which she works made during the year. As part of her review, she is identifying whether a decision was impacted by factors internal to the company, or external.

Which of the following does not appear on Lara's list of external factors?

The new system is more user-friendly, thus increasing employee job satisfaction.

Sam is the analyst with the responsibility for assessing the economic feasibility of the new system that his team has been hired to develop for Widgets, Inc.

Sam's boss has asked for a quick list of the tangible benefits of the new system, because the client has expressed some concerns about the project and she wants to reassure him. Which of the following would NOT be on such a list as developed by Sam?

TCO

The estimated costs of a proposed system usually are considered the ____, which includes ongoing support and maintenance costs, as well as acquisition costs.

operational feasibility

Of the measures of feasibility in the accompanying figure, ____ considers questions such as "Does management support the project?" and "Will the new system require training for users?"

Creating a new report for a user

____ is an example of a discretionary project.

preliminary

A systems analyst conducts a(n) ____ investigation to study the systems request and recommend specific action.

economic feasibility

Of the measures of feasibility in the accompanying figure, ____ assesses tangible and intangible benefits to the company in addition to costs.

greatest benefit, at the lowest cost, in the shortest period of time

When setting priorities for systems requests, the highest priority goes to projects that provide the ____.

technical

A feasibility study includes tests for ____ feasibility, which refers to the practical resources needed to develop, purchase, install, or operate the system.

findings

In the preliminary investigation report, the ____ section contains the results of the preliminary investigation, including a description of the project's scope, constraints, and feasibility.

Performance

____ limitations result when a system that was designed for a specific hardware configuration becomes obsolete when new hardware is introduced.

scope

Determining the project ____ means to define the boundaries, or extent, of a project — being as specific as possible.

False

The purpose of an interview, and of the preliminary investigation itself, is to convince others that a project is justified, not to uncover facts.

False

Data entry controls should be excessive without being effective.

True

If only one person has the necessary IT skills and experience to evaluate systems requests, that person should consult closely with users and managers throughout the company to ensure that business and operational needs are considered carefully.

The new system is more user-friendly, thus increasing employee job satisfaction.

Sam is the analyst with the responsibility for assessing the economic feasibility of the new system that his team has been hired to develop for Widgets, Inc.

Sam's boss has asked for a quick list of the tangible benefits of the new system, because the client has expressed some concerns about the project and she wants to reassure him. Which of the following would NOT be on such a list as developed by Sam?

identify all tasks

The first step in creating a WBS is to ____.

risk

A ____ is an event that could affect a project negatively.

milestones

When maintaining schedules, if enough ____ and frequent checkpoints exist, problems will be detected rapidly.

successor

When two or more concurrent tasks depend on a single prior task, the concurrent tasks are called ____ tasks.

identify all the project tasks

The first step in the creation of a PERT/CPM chart is to ____.

critical

A ____ path includes all tasks that are vital to the project schedule.

completion with the same personnel as were on the team at the outset

All of the following are metrics of a successful project EXCEPT ____.

critical

Project managers always must be aware of the ____ path, so they can monitor the vital tasks and keep the project on track.

milestones

In addition to tasks, every project has ____, which are reference points used to monitor progress and manage the project.

all of the above
task time estimates, sequences, personnel assignments

A project manager must balance ____ to achieve a workable schedule; graphical planning aids like the one in the accompanying figure can help in the process.

includes identifying project tasks and estimating completion times and costs

A project manager's planning _____.

includes monitoring the progress of the project, evaluating results, and taking corrective action when necessary to stay on target

For a project manager, monitoring and controlling _____.

the team member most vulnerable to a given risk

Most risk identifications include a brief description of all of the following EXCEPT ____.

all of the above
project size and scope, prior experience with similar projects or systems, IT resources

In developing time and cost estimates, project managers must consider _____.

any of the above
personality conflicts among team members, turnover of project personnel, poor control methods

Problems with timetables and project milestones can indicate ____.

groups

The accompanying figure shows task ____, which each might represent several activities that can be shown in a more detailed chart.

inaccurate TCO forecast

All of the following are possible causes of cost overruns related to human resource factors EXCEPT ____.

PERT/CPM

Many project managers find ____ charts more helpful for scheduling, monitoring, and controlling projects.

defining project constraints

Project scheduling involves all of the following EXCEPT ____.

True

Most managers recognize that problems do occur on most projects; it is better to alert management sooner rather than later.

True

System developers can initiate a formal project as early as the preliminary investigation stage, or later on, as analysis, design, and implementation activities occur.

True

Project planning is a dynamic task and involves constant change.

False

When tasks must be completed one after another, they are called concurrent tasks.

They are predecessor tasks of each other.

In discussing PERT/CPM charts, you discuss the types of task patterns that can occur in a project schedule. You give an example of two tasks, A and B, that can both begin as soon as task C is finished. Which of the following is NOT a true statement about tasks A and B?

predecessor

Two or more concurrent tasks often depend on a single prior task, which is called a(n) ____ task.

dependent task

A _____ cannot be started until one or more other tasks are completed.

bottom-up

PERT/CPM is called a(n) ____ technique, because it analyzes a large, complex project as a series of individual tasks.

concurrent

When several tasks can start at the same time, each is called a ____ task.

involves staffing, which includes selecting the project team and assigning specific tasks to team members

A project manager's scheduling function _____.

reference to successor tasks

In a PERT/CPM chart, each task has all of the following EXCEPT a(n) ____.

response

A risk ____ plan is a proactive effort to anticipate a risk and describe an action plan to deal with it.

False

Using prior experience to make time and cost estimates works best for large projects.

False

When two or more concurrent tasks depend on a single prior task, each of the concurrent tasks is called a predecessor task.

True

Although a Gantt chart provides more detailed information about a project, a PERT/CPM chart offers a rapid overview that graphically displays the timing, duration, and progress of each task.

histogram

A common tool for showing the distribution of a questionnaire or sampling results is a vertical bar chart called a(n) ____.

use case diagram

A(n) ____ is a UML technique that visually represents the interaction between users and an information system.

more satisfied users

Greater user involvement in the system development process usually results in ____.

range-of-response questions

In an interview, ____ are questions that ask a person to evaluate something by providing limited answers to specific responses or on a numeric scale.

actor

In a use case diagram, the user becomes a(n) ____, with a specific role that describes how he or she interacts with a system.

Student grades must be entered on machine-scannable forms prepared by the instructor

____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the input category.

systematic sample

When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select every tenth customer for review.

informal

In a(n) ____ structure, which usually is based on interpersonal relationships, some people have more influence or knowledge than appears on an organization chart.

stratified sample

When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ could ensure the sample is balanced geographically by selecting five customers from each of four zip codes.

random sample

When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select any 20 customers.

The contact management system must generate a daily reminder list for all sales reps

____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the output category.

FDD

Using a(n) ____, an analyst can show business functions and break them down into lower-level functions and processes.

Analytical skills

____ enable a systems analyst to identify a problem, evaluate the key elements, and develop a useful solution.

FDD

A(n) ____ is a top-down representation of a function or a process.

give the interviewee easy access to supporting material that might be needed

If an interviewee gives only short or incomplete responses to open-ended questions, a systems analyst should do all of the following EXCEPT ____.

scrum

In a(n) ____, team members prepare to lunge at each other to achieve their objectives.

systems analysis

The ____ phase of the SDLC includes four main activities: requirements modeling, data and process modeling, object modeling, and consideration of development strategies.

both a and b
prototyping, user involvement

RAD relies heavily on ____.

open-ended questions

In an interview, ____ encourage spontaneous and unstructured responses.

True

The ability to manage information is the mark of a successful systems analyst and an important skill for all IT professionals.

False

When fact-finding, asking what is being done is the same as asking what could or should be done.

False

In the early stages of systems analysis, interviews usually focus on specific topics, but as the fact-finding process continues, the interviews are more general.

True

IT professionals recognize that successful systems must be user-oriented, and users need to be involved, formally or informally, at every stage of systems development.

control

Perry has inherited an Excel sheet that lists all of the system requirements for his team's new project, but unfortunately, his predecessor did not label the requirements with categories—or in some cases failed to categorize them correctly—so he needs to take care of this so the requirements can be sorted correctly.

Perry has found one system requirement that he thinks could fit into a couple of different categories. What is the best categorization of this requirement: An employee record must be added, changed, or deleted only by a member of the human resources department?

questionnaire

In projects where it is desirable to obtain input from a large number of people, a(n) ____, such as that shown in the accompanying figure, can be a valuable tool.

The student records system must produce class lists within five hours after the end of registration

____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the performance category.

random sample

When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select any 20 customers.

UML

The ____ is a widely used method of visualizing and documenting software systems design.

The system must maintain separate levels of security for users and the system administrator

____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the control category.

closed-ended questions

In an interview, ____ limit or restrict the response.

informal

In a(n) ____ structure, which usually is based on interpersonal relationships, some people have more influence or knowledge than appears on an organization chart.

TCO

In addition to direct costs, systems developers must identify and document indirect expenses that contribute to the ____.

stratified sample

When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ could ensure the sample is balanced geographically by selecting five customers from each of four zip codes.

False

When designing a questionnaire, arrange questions in a random order, intermixing simple and more complex topics.

True

The main objective of a sample is to ensure that it represents the overall population accurately.

True

A list of topics should be sent to an interviewee several days before the meeting, especially when detailed information is needed, so the person can prepare for the interview and minimize the need for a follow-up meeting.

his own

Kieran has finished compiling the list of the various members of the JAD group: He is the JAD project leader, Malia is the representative from top management, Simon is a manager, Alisa and Ian are users, Shakira and Max are systems analysts, and Devon is the recorder.

As Kieran develops the agenda he wants to put the name of the appropriate person next to the agenda item. Whose name would he put next to the final task on the agenda, the task of preparing the report that will be sent to JAD team members?

validity

In a data dictionary, some data elements have ____ rules, such as an employee's salary must be within the range defined for the employee's job classification.

logical

In data and process modeling, a(n) ____ model shows what the system must do, regardless of how it will be implemented physically.

no output

A black hole process is a process that has ____.

a process step that is repeated until a specific condition changes

A black hole process is a process that has ____.

tree

A decision ____ is a graphical representation of the conditions, actions, and rules found in a decision table.

Leveling

____ is the process of drawing a series of increasingly detailed DFDs, until all functional primitives are identified.

All of the above
Spontaneous generation, Gray holes, Black holes

____ is/are logically impossible in a DFD because a process must act on input, shown by an incoming data flow, and produce output, represented by an outgoing data flow.

horizontal form that resembles a tree with the roots at the left and the branches to the right

Decision trees show the logic structure in a ____.

capital

DFD symbols are referenced by using all ____ letters for the symbol name.

value for the data element if a value otherwise is not entered for it

The data dictionary usually records and describes a default value, which is the ____.

records

In a data dictionary, data elements are combined into ____, which are meaningful combinations of data elements that are included in data flows or retained in data stores.

domain

A data dictionary specifies a data element's ____, which is the set of values permitted for the data element.

field

In a data dictionary, a(n) ____ is the smallest piece of data that has meaning within an information system.

rectangle with rounded corners

In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson symbol for a process is a ____.

exploded view

Because diagram 0 is a more detailed or expanded version of process 0 on a context diagram, diagram 0 is called a(n) ____.

alias

In a data dictionary, any name other than the standard data element name is called a(n) ____.

ensures that the input and output data flows of the parent DFD are maintained on the child DFD

Balancing ____.

line with a single or double arrowhead

In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson symbol for a data flow is a ____.

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