Chapter 9: Motivation and Emotion

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Secondary drives, such as the need for money, are learned through experience.

True

Ryan and Deci's self-determination theory asserts that the three primary human interpersonal needs are competence, relatedness and

autonomy

According to Maslow's hierarchy, an individual with high aesthetic need seeks

symmetry and beauty

Jimmy, a truck driver, feels it was his fate to drive trucks. He acquired the position through the recommendation of a friend, and seems relatively content going to work. Jimmy can be said to have

an external locus of control

David Myers counsels people that one way to achieve happiness is to focus more on career achievements and material success.

False

According to Lazarus's cognitive-mediational theory:

the appraisal of a situation comes before both the physical arousal and the experience of the emotion.

"I am angry because I frown" is an example of:

facial feedback hypothesis.

One of the contributions of the cognitive arousal theory of emotion is that it highlighted the importance of cognition in determining emotions.

True

In Schachter and Singer's classic study of emotion, male student volunteers were told that they were going to:

answer a questionnaire about their reactions to a new vitamin called Suproxin.

Which of the following examples describes the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion?

"I am afraid and running and aroused."

Several studies report that people with spinal cord injuries are capable of experiencing the same emotions after their injury as before, sometimes even more intensely.

True

Pete was confronted by a large dog that growled at him. According to James-Lange theory, what was Pete's first response as a result of being confronted by this dog?

Pete would have a physiological reaction.

Genes that enable people to store energy in the form of fat in anticipation of leaner times are believed to have been passed down from ancestors who lived as:

hunter-gatherers.

Mandisa is an attractive 19-year-old girl recently diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. Her weight loss is 40 percent below her expected body weight. Given this information, what would be the best form of treatment for Mandisa?

hospitalization and psychological counseling for 2 to 4 months

There are all sorts of social cues that tell people to eat even when they are not really hungry.

True

Adolescents have a very high basal metabolic rate and a lower weight set point than adults.

True

The proponents of low-carbohydrate diets argue that if people control carbohydrate intake they can control their weight set point.

False

Expectancy value theories assume that the actions of humans cannot be predicted without an understanding of people's:

beliefs and values

Sensation seekers always gravitate toward situations that involve some danger.

False

A stimulus motive is learned.

False

According to psychologist Carol Dweck, a person's need for achievement is closely linked to that person's

beliefs about control over his or her life

Xavier has a strong desire to succeed in attaining goals. He currently has a medical degree and is in the process of earning a law degree. Xavier has a:

need for achievement.

The psychological tension that arises in an organism, and that motivates the organism to act to reduce the tension, is called:

a drive.

One of the earliest approaches to motivation focused onmotivation focused on:

biologically determined patterns of behavior.

Sometimes people are extrinsically motivated by the desire to avoid an unpleasant consequence.

True

How does Lazarus's cognitive-mediational theory differ from the Schachter-Singer cognitive arousal theory?

Lazarus's theory suggests that we appraise a stimulus first, then cognitively label the emotion, and then feel a physical response.

The desire to avoid an unpleasant consequence is an example of

extrinsic motivation.

The level of weight that the body tries to maintain is known as

weight set point.

Physiologically, the body responds to emotion with arousal created by the

sympathetic nervous system.

Physiologically, the body responds to anger with

higher heart rate and blood pressure.

Learned ways of controlling displays of emotion in social settings are known as

display rules

The theory that we experience emotion first with physical arousal (e.g., increased heart rate, shaky hands) which then leads to awareness of the emotion is the

James-Lange theory of emotion.

The theory of emotion that proposes that physical arousal and cognitive appraisal of a stimulus happen simultaneously is known as the

cognitive arousal theory of emotion.

Which of the following is an element of emotion?

physical arousal

Which hormone secreted by the pancreas signals hunger by lowering blood sugar levels?

insulin

Which area of the brain has been linked to the processing of positive emotions?

the left frontal lobe

In order to control emotions, the technique of distraction has been linked to what area of the brain?

anterior cingulate cortex

The theory that feeling an emotion comes first as a physical reaction that leads to a behavioral response is known as the

Common sense theory of emotion.

One of the earliest approaches to motivation focused on

biologically determined patterns of behavior.

An example of a stimulus motive is

exploration.

The role of the lateral hypothalamus is

to trigger the eating response when insulin levels go up.

The ________ is an adaptation of Charles Darwin's theory that when an emotion is expressed freely on the face, the emotion intensifies.

facial feedback hypothesis

In the classic Schachter-Singer "angry man/happy man" experiment, participants were given a drug to elicit a physical response and then exposed to two different conditions. One group was paired with a confederate pretending to be angry and the other group with a confederate pretending to be happy. What was the main objective of this experiment?

to determine whether physical arousal has to be interpreted cognitively before it can be labeled as an emotion

Sensation seekers

need more arousal in the form of more complex and varied sensory experiences.

Darwin proposed that emotions are a product of evolution and are therefore universal. Which of the following supports the idea that emotions are based in biology rather than in learning?

A child, blind from birth, makes the appropriate facial expression for an emotion without ever having seen it.

What portion of the brain is involved in creating the facial expressions of emotions in humans?

amygdala

What portion of the brain is involved in the interpretation of facial expressions conveying emotion?

right hemisphere

The motivation approach in which behavior is explained in terms of the external stimulus and its rewarding properties is the

incentive approach.

______________ proposed a total of 18 instincts that drive human behavior.

William McDougall

The role of the lateral hypothalamus is

to trigger the eating response when insulin levels go up.

Drive reduction theorists believe that believe that

there is a connection between internal physiological states and outward behavior.

According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, before a person is ready to worry about his or her self-esteem needs, which needs must be met first?

Love and belongingness needs

According to Dweck's research on achievement motivation, why might a student who has a history of bad grades be most at risk for developing learned helplessness?

The student may become depressed because of the belief that intelligence is fixed, unchangeable, and out of his or her control.

The argument that people with spinal cord injuries can experience emotions without physical feedback from the sympathetic organs to the cortex initially seemed to support which emotional theory?

The Cannon-Bard theory

As people age, what happens to the body's BMR and weight set point?

BMR decreases, weight set point increases

A gymnast can complete a trick on the balance beam consistently without falling in practice. However, during competition the gymnast becomes nervous, causing her to bobble and fall. According to the Yerkes-Dodson law, what is the problem?

The gymnast's arousal level is too high.

Chris is in his twenties and has completed college; he has satisfied his curiosity about other cultures with a trip around the world when he graduated. According to Maslow's hierarchy, which needs might he work to satisfy next?

Aesthetic needs

Which of the following is NOT true of a sensation seeker?

Sensation seekers always need arousal in the form of danger.

Which statement is NOT true about display rules?

Display rules are innate, not learned.

Which of the following is NOT a factor that creates obesity?

a raised metabolism as people age

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a person who is high in the need for power (nPow)?

a good team player

Which of the following does NOT play a role in determining the body's weight set point?

the size of the stomach

Which of the following describes the cognitive arousal theory?

"I am aroused due to dangerous cues in my environment; therefore, I must be afraid."

Professor Peterson is a psychology professor who taught his class about theories of emotion. He told his class that facial expressions provide feedback to the brain, which in turn intensifies and causes emotions. Professor Peterson taught his class the

facial feedback hypothesis of emotion.

Physically, when a person experiences an emotion, an arousal is created by the_____________, causing changes in heart rate, changes in breathing, dilated pupils, and dry mouth.

sympathetic nervous system

According to Dweck's research, which of the following is a method parents and teachers can use to improve a child's motivation to achieve?

A teacher should praise a student's effort in the learning process by saying, "That was a very clever way to think about this problem."

According to Ryan and Deci, a person's intrinsic motivation may be increased because of a combined sense of

competence and autonomy.

Lisa is the lead actor in a tear-jerking play. She spends most of her time on stage "crying." Even though she feels happy and upbeat before the show, she finds that she often feels down after the show. This is an example of which emotional theory?

facial feedback hypothesis

Which of the following is an example of a social component of hunger?

A girl feels lonely so she eats an extra helping of dessert to cheer herself up

The motivation approach in which behavior is explained in terms of the external stimulus and its rewarding properties is the

incentive approach.

Curiosity, exploration, and playing are all examples of

a stimulus motive.

The theory of motivation in which the social context of an action has an effect on the type of motivation existing for the action is known as

the self-determination theory

Which of the following is a theory developed out of the humanistic approach to understanding motivation?

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

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