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The branch of psychology that is focused on understanding the internal physical events and processes that correspond with our experiences and behavior is called:

biological psychology

A neuroscientist would be most likely to study which of the following topics?
A) how conflict affects marital happiness
B) which psychological test would best predict job success
C) at which age children understand abstract concepts
D) brain development during adolescence

D

The branch of science that is concerned with the study of the nervous system is called:

neuroscience

Neurons are:

highly specialized cells that receive and transmit information from one area of the body to another.

There are roughly _____ neurons in the human brain.

100 Billion

Which of the following signals muscles to relax or contract?

Motor Neurons

Information from specialized cells in the sense organs is conveyed to the brain by:

sensory neurons

The three basic types of neurons are:

sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons.

_____ neurons convey information about the environment from the sense organs to the brain, and _____ neurons communicate information to the muscles and glands.

Sensory; motor

The type of specialized cell whose main function is to communicate between neurons is a(n):

interneuron.

Most of the neurons in the human nervous system are:

interneurons

Which of the following statements about the properties of neurons is TRUE?
A) All neurons are the same size and shape.
B) The size and shape of neurons vary a great deal, reflecting their specialized function.
C) Sensory and motor neurons are the same size and shape, and interneurons are long and thin.
D) Motor neurons outnumber interneurons by almost 10 to 1.

B

The word dendrite comes from a Greek word meaning "_____."

tree

The amount of information that a neuron can receive increases with the number of _____ that the neuron has.

dendrites and dendrite branches

Most neurons have all of the following parts, EXCEPT:
A) association areas.
B) a cell body and nucleus.
C) dendrites.
D) an axon.

Association Areas

Which of the following statements about the axon is FALSE?
A) Some axons in the human body extend twelve inches or more.
B) The axons of many, but not all, neurons have a white, fatty covering called the myelin sheath.
C) A given neuron usually has many more axons than dendrites.
D) Gaps in the myelin sheath surrounding an axon are called the nodes of Ranvier.

C

Which part of the neuron receives messages from other neurons?

Dendrites

A neuron may have thousands of _____, but can have only one _____.

dendrites; axon

The part of the neuron that carries messages to other cells in the body is the:

axon.

Which statement most accurately describes the length of axons?
A) Most axons are several feet long.
B) Most axons are approximately one-tenth of an inch long.
C) The length of axons can range from a few thousandths of an inch to 3 or 4 feet.
D) The length of any particular axon changes depending upon whether muscles are stretched or clenched.

B

The primary function of the myelin sheath is to:

insulate the axon and increase the speed at which neurons convey their message.

Compared to neurons that do not have myelin, neurons with myelin:

can communicate up to 20 times faster.

Multiple sclerosis is a disease that involves:

the degeneration of the myelin sheath, slowing or interrupting the transmission of neural messages.

As a general rule, communication within a neuron progresses from:

the dendrites to the cell body to the axon.

Information is transmitted along the axon:

...

The all-or-none law refers to the fact that:

either the neuron is sufficiently stimulated and an action potential occurs or it is not sufficiently stimulated and the action potential does not occur.

Which two factors affect the speed at which the action potential is conducted along a neuron's axon?
A) the diameter of the axon and whether the axon is wrapped with a myelin sheath
B) the number of dendrites and the size of the cell body
C) the type and number of axons projecting from the neuron
D) the size of the positive electrical charge just before an action potential occurs and the number of adjacent neurons

A

The fastest neurons in the human body communicate their messages at:

speeds up to 270 miles per hour.

The presynaptic neuron and the postsynaptic neuron are separated by a tiny, fluid-filled space called the:

synaptic gap

The point of communication between two neurons is called the:

Synapse

Presynaptic neuron is to postsynaptic neuron as:

message-sending neuron is to message-receiving neuron.

Ninety-nine percent of communication between neurons is:

electrical.

Which of the following best defines a neurotransmitter?

a chemical messenger that crosses the synaptic gap between neurons

Synaptic vesicles contain:

Neurotransmitters

In synaptic transmission, the action potential stimulates the release of:

neurotransmitters by the synaptic vesicles.

What happens to the neurotransmitters that fail to attach to a receptor site?

In a process called reuptake, they are often reabsorbed by the sending neuron and recycled.

Like a key in a lock, the shape of the _____ must fit the _____ to affect the postsynaptic neuron.

neurotransmitter; receptor site

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