nutrition

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The basic building blocks of protein are

amino acid

The presence of ___chemically distinguishes

nitrogen

Dietary proteins supply ___ kcal per gram

4

A body function that is not associated with protein is

cholesterol synthesis

Overtime, if protein intake does not meet the body's protein needs for building and repair of tissues

skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and the liver decrease in size, excessive body fluidbegins to accumulate in the extracellular spaces, and the immune system fails to function properly.

which of the following foods provides all of the essential amino acids?

milk-only animal protein

The side chain, or R portion, of an amino acid

determines the name of the amino acid

Which of the following amino acids is classified as a "conditionally essential" amino acid?

tyrosine-conditionally essential when a person has PKU

Foods containing all essential amino acis in the proportion needed by the body are designated

high quality protein foods

Good sources of high quality (complete) proten include all of the following except

whole wheat

When over 10 amino acids are chemically bonded by peptide bonds, the resulting product is known as

polypeptide

Cooking an egg destroys its physiological property by

denaturing

When two or more plant proteins are combined to compensate for deficienccies in essential amino acid content in each protein, the proteins are called

complementary proteins

DNA-coded instruction for protein synthesis consist of a sequence of __nucleotides per unit

3

The nucleotide units that represent a specific amino acid in protein synthesis are called

codons

The genetic disorder sickle-cell anemia produces a profound change in ___structure.

hemoglobin

The sequential order of the amino acids in the polypeptide chain is called the

primary structure

World wide approximately ___ of proteins comes from animal sources

35% (higher in U.S.)

Protein quality is determines by all of the following except

the food cost

Which of the following conditions would result in negative nitrogen balance?

Cushing's disease

Nitrogen makes up approximately__ of the weight of an amino acid.

16%

The RDA for most healthy adults is

0.8g/kg of body weight

When food proteins reach the stomach, HCL___the protein.

denatures

Which of the following enzymes aids in digesting polypeptides into shorter peptides and amino acids?

trypsin

Which of the following is a function of protein?

providing structural support to body cells, producing antibodies to fight infection, and contributing to acid-base balance.

Edema in the lower extremities may appear when there is a sever lack of dierary protein because__

Blood protein levels drop and fluid shifts into interstitial spaces

Amino acids are required for the synthesis of

enzymes, neurotransmitters, and some hormones

A diet that is deficient in carbohydrate will ultimately force the liver and, to a lesser extent, the kidneys to

produe glucose from amino acids (glucogenesis)

Proteins help regulate blood pH by

accepting and releasing hydrogen ions

___ are organic compounds that help to maintain acid-base balance within a narrow range

buffers

The proteins that inactivate foreign bacteria and viruses are

antibodies

The lack of an immune response to foreign compounds entering the body is called

anergy

A high-quality protein used as a standard for measuing the quality of other proteins is

egg white

The biological value of a food protein is a measure of

the weight gained by a growing rat after eating the food protein for 10 days

An individual who is consuming adequate protein, but only half the adequate level of energy, will probably be in

negative nitrogen balance

Most Americans consume___dietary protein as determined bu the RDA

excessive amounts of

To meet basic protein needs, an athlete needs to

eat foods from all five groups in the recommended amounts

A high-protein diet is discourages fro patients with

kidney disease

A vegetarian diet may be low in

vitamin B-12, iron, and calcium

When plant proteins are compares to animal proteins, they

are usually deficient in one or more essential amino acids

The recommended amount of protein as a percentage of total energy intake is

10%-35%

The major symptoms of kwashiorkor in children are

edema and growth failure

Kwashiorkor

is a disease of severely deficient protein intake

Protein energy malnutrition is also known as

marasmus

Which of the following is a sign of protein deficiency?

edema, mild to moderate weight loss, and poor resistance to infection

After major surgery, hospital patients may be at risk of PEM due to

poor prior health, low dietary intakes, and increased needs for recovery

An example of two incomplete protein foods eaten together to produce a complete protein meal are

red beans and rice

A total vegetarian or vegan will eat

only foods from plant sources

How many calories does alcohol provide?

7kcal/g

The highest concentration of ethanol is found in

distilled spirits

The alcohol content of an 80-proof tequilla is

40%

WIne generally contains___alcohol

5-14%

The process of fermentation involves all of the following except

simple sugars such as maltose, yeast, and carbon dioxide are involved

A standard drink is defined as a

5 ounce glass of wine

A standard drink contains ___grams of alcohol

15

Alcohol is absorbed in the small intestine by

simple diffusion

Alcohol absorption occurs in the

stomach and small intestine

The ADH pathway of alcohol metabolism converts ethanol into the compound

acetyl-CoA

The main organ responsible for ethanol metabolism is the

liver

Which alcohol metabolic pathway is utilized with low to moderate consumption of alcohol?

alcohol dehydrogenase

When the enzyme system MEOS is induced, alcohol tolerance ___because the rate of alcohol metabolism____

increases; increases

The symptoms of acetaldehyde buildup during alcohol metabolism include

flushing, rapid heartbeat, and hyperventilation

Women absorb 30-35% more ethanol directly from the stomach than men because women

have lower amounts of alcohol deyhydrogenase in the cells lining the stomach

A typical rate of alcohol metabolism for a social drinker is

1/2 drink per hour

Binge drinking for a male is defined as having___or more drinks on a single occasion

5

A blood alcohol level of ___ is defined as legal intoxication in the US and Canada

0.08

What percent of North Americans consume alcohol ?

62%

Binge drinking on college campuses is associated with

academic problems, auto accidents, and sexual abuse

The population group with the highest rate of alcohol consumption is

college students

Benefits of moderate alcohol consumption unclude lower rates of

cardiovascular disease

Detrimental effects of excessive alcohol consumption include higher rates of

high blood pressure and stroke, cancers of the mouth and throat, and liver diseaseand liver failure

An early sign of alcohol-induced liver damage is

steatosis

Liver cirrhosis is characterized by

decreased synthesis of proteins made in the liver, abnormal retention of fluid in the abdomen, and poor nutritional status

Alcoholism is associated with all of the following except

type 1 diabetes

Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome is the ___ deficiency disease that results from sever alcohol abuse

thiamin

Alcoholics often have trouble with night blindness. This results from

impaired absorption and transport of vitamin A

The recommendation for alcohol consumption during pregnancy is

no alcohol at all

The problems of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependency

affects nearly 1 in 3 Americans over a lifetime

Which of the following is not a common nutritional concern in alcoholics

vitamin A toxicity

Medications used to treat alcohol dependence act on the

both the brain to reduce alcohol cravings and the liver to block complete metabolism of alcohol

The risk of developing a problem with alcohol is higher in those

with a biological parent with alcohol problems

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