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Liberty University School of Aeronautics Stage Check

What are the FAA Special Emphasis Areas

Wake Turbulence
Checklist Usage
CFIT
Collision Avoidance
LAHSO
ADM
Positive Aircraft Control
Positive Exchange of Controls
Stall/Spin Awareness
Icing
SRM
Other

When could Positive Aircraft Control be an issue on an IFR Flight?

Instrument Scans
Disorientation
Instrument Failures
Distraction

Procedure for Positive Exchange of Controls?

I, You, I

What causes an airplane to stall

Breaking the critical angle of attack

Minimum altitudes for stall/stall recoveries?

1500 AGL dual
2000 Solo

How to recover from a stall?

Pitch down
Full Power

What causes an airplane to spin?

A stall must first occur, then one wing has a higher AOA than the other.

How to recover from a spin?

Power-Idle
Aileron-Neutral
Pitch-Down
Rudder-Full Opposite

Where would spins likely occur on an IFR flight?

Climbing turns - Missed approach
Circling Approach
Exiting extended banded turn

How to scan for traffic?

10 degree sections

What is wake turbulence and how is it produced

Wingtip vertices, air spills over the tip, goes from high to low pressure

Direction of WT Vortices?

Right Wing-CC
Left Wing-C

On an IFR flight plan, is LAHSO required?

no

When would you use a printed checklist?

Preflight
Before Starting Engine
Starting
Before Taxi
Before Takeoff
After Takeoff
Cruise
Descent
Before Landing
After Landing
Engine Shutdown/Securing

What is ADM?

A systematic approach to making decisions while in an aircraft

What is CFIT?

Controlled Flight Into Terrain

How does CFIT happen?

While in IMC

Spacial Disorientation?

False sensations leading to disorientation with regards to aircraft, its location, and its bank/turns. It is disorientation because of the eyes.

Vestibular Disorientation?

False inner ear sensation

What is Hypoxia?

Not getting enough usable blood into the brain.

Types of Hypoxia?

Hypoxic-Not enough oxygen in blood
Stagnant-Not enough blood to the head
Hystotoxic-Brain cannot use oxygen
Anaemic-Oxygen not attaching to blood

Privileges of PPL?

Fly self/people not for hire
Non-profit
Search and rescue
Tow Glider (Must meet requirements)
Demonstrate Airplane to perspective buyer (200 hours)

Limitations

Private Pilots may not fly for hire

When is an Instrument Rating required?

IMC
Special VFR from Sunset to Sunrise
Class A airspace
IFR Flight Plan

Flight Experience for IFR?

Within past 6 months:
6 Instrument Approaches
6 Holding Procedures
6 Intercept/Tracking Courses in Actual, Simulated/Simulator

Classes of Medical Certificates?

1st, 2nd, 3rd

Day VFR Equipment Requirements

Altimiter
Tach
Oil Pressure
Manifold Pressure (If equipped)
Airspeed
Temp*
Oil Temp
Fuel Guage*
Landing Gear Position (If equipped)
Anticollision Lights
Magnetic Compass*
ELT
Seat Belts

Night VFR?

Fuses (Or Circuit Breakers)
Landing Light
Anticollision Lights
Position Lights
Source of Power

IFR Equipment?

Generator
Rate of Turn
Attitude
Ball
Clock*
Altimeter
Radio*
Direction Indicator
**DME (Above 24,000)

What inspections must be complied with?

Annual
100 Hour
VOR
Altimeter, Pitot/Static
ELT
Transponder

What Documents must be on board?

Airworthiness
Registration
Operating Manual
Weight and Balance data

Fuel Requirements for IFR Flight?

Fly to destination with 45 minutes remaining
(Or to dest. and to alternate with 45 minutes remaining {123 Rule for Alternates})

What is a safety pilot?

Pilot with valid medical, PPL for simulated, IFR for actual

Alcohol?

.04%, Time 8 hours, 12-24 recommended

What is IMSAFE?

Illness
Medication
Stress/Sleep
Alcohol
Fatgue
Eating

Types of VOR's

Terminal
Low
High

Ranges and Altitudes for VOR's?

Term-Ground to 12,000 25nm
Low-Ground to 18,000 40nm
High-Ground to 14,500 40nm, 14,500-FL180 100nm, FL180-FL450 130nm, FL450-FL600 100nm

Methods for testing VOR's?

Air +-6
Ground +-4
VOT+-4
Dual +-4

Records for VOR Checks?

Date, Location, Error, Signature

Advantages to VOR?

Precise, Accurate, Reliable

Disadvantages to VOR?

Line of sight, reception distance

Advantages to NDB?

Direct-to, not line of sight?

Disadvantages of NDB?

Very Unreliable, Interference especially at night, not radials

Frequencies for NDB?

140-535 kHz

C172 Engine?

Lycoming IO360 Air cooled, gravity fed 4 cylander opposed 180 horsepower engine

Horsepower?

180HP

What gives engine spark?

Spark plugs receiving power from magneto

Why 2 magnetos?

Efficiency/Safety

How does fuel system work?

Gravity Fed-Fuel Tank, Fuel Selector, Fuel Shutoff, Fuel Strainer, Reservoir, Engine

How is it vented?

Caps are not airtight, air inlet under left wing

Electrical system?

28 volt alternator, 2-24 volt batteries, 60 amp system

Electric systems considered for IFR Preflight?

Pitot heat, Turn Coordinator

Principles that make a GYRO work?

Rigidity in Space-always stays in same spot
Precession-When disturbed in motion, will take 90 degrees before change is seen

Describe the Vacuum system

1 engine driven wet vacuum. pump, regulator, standby attitude indicator, air filter, transducer

How many vacuum pumps?

1

Errors of attitude indicator?

Acceleration- Nose up
Vise Versa
Bank error after 180 turn

allowable error of Attitude during taxi check?

5 degrees

Errors of heading indicator

Relative to space, can deviate 15 per hour, mus realign with compass

Allowable Precession of HI?

4 per 15 minutes

Errors of Magnetic Compass?

Magnetic Dip-Float Asembly (UNOS)
Oscillation-erratic movement of compass because of turns, turb, etc.
Acceleration-ANDS
Variation-Difference between true and magnetic North
Deviation-Electric fields in AC

How many satellites does GPS have

24

What makes a GPS IFR Certified?

Mounted in AC, External Antenna, Certified for IFR use

RAIM?

Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitering

WAAS?

Wide Area Augmentation System

Advantages of GPS

Reliable, Accurate, Direct-To Navigation

Disadvantages of GPS

Military Controlled, Info Expires

CDI Deflections?

Enroute-2 Miles
Terminal-1 Mile
App-.03 nm

CDI, What phase of flight?

ENR-30 nm from/to airport
Term-<30nm
App-2 nm from FAF

Check WAAS on G1000?

AUX page on MFD

Where is AHRS Located?

in Tailcone

Where is ADC Located?

Behind MFD

What is min altitude for autopilot?

800 AGL

Speeds?

Bottom of White-40 VS1
Bottom of Green-48 VS0
Top of White-85 (VF)
Top of Green? 129

What is VY

74, Use during Climbout

When is transition from VY to 85 necessary? Why?

1000 AGL, See Traffic Better, Better engine cooling

Max Window Open speed?

163

Why fly at Va?

Rough air/Maneuvering

Max error for altimeter?

+-75 feet

How does VSI work?

Calibrated Leak

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