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Black Thursday:

On October 23, a wave of panic selling gripped investors who dumped $4 billion in stock, by noon on this day the stock market had lost another $9 billion

Black Tuesday:

October 29, 1929; called "the most devastating day in the history of the New York Stock Market, on which investors sold more than 16.4 million shares- a record that would stand until 1968; by the end of this day the market had lost $32 billion

Scottsboro Boys:

in 1931 authorities arrested 9 black teenagers and charged them with raping two white women on a train bound for Scottsboro; twelve days after their arrest, an all- white jury sentenced them to the electric chair; the Supreme Court overturned the conviction the following year, only to have it upheld by another court, which was then again reversed by the Supreme Court; in 1935 four of the boys had the charges dropped, while the other five served long prison terms

Dust Bowl:

a period of severe dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands in the 1930s, particularly in 1934 and 1936. The phenomenon was caused by severe drought combined with farming methods that did not include crop rotation, fallow fields, cover crops, soil terracing and wind-breaking trees to prevent wind erosion.Extensive deep plowing of the virgin topsoil of the Great Plains in the preceding decade had displaced the natural deep-rooted grasses that normally kept the soil in place and trapped moisture even during periods of drought and high winds

The Grapes of Wrath:

novel by John Steinbeck chronicling a family's migration to California during the Dust Bowl

Reconstruction Finance Corporation:

One of Hoover's boldest moves to stabilize the internal economy; lent money to financial institutions; by July it had pump $1.2 billion into the economy; later given permission to lend money directly to state and local governments; faced intense criticism for its favoritism toward certain bank

Federal Home Loan Bank Act (1932):

United States federal law passed under President Herbert Hoover in order to lower the cost of home ownership. It established the Federal Home Loan Bank Board to charter and supervise federal savings and loan institutions. It also created the Federal Home Loan Banks which lend to S&Ls in order to finance home mortgages.

Glass-Steagall Act:

added $1 billion in gold to the money supply in 1932; passed by Congress in 1933 prohibiting commercial banks from collaborating with full-service brokerage firms or participating in investment banking activities. enacted during the Great Depression. It protected bank depositors from the additional risks associated with security transactions.

Hoovervilles:

name given to tarpaper and cardboard shacks that housed the nation's homeless during the Great Depression

Bonus Army:

made up of veterans of WWI who descended on Washington to lobby for immediae payment of bonuses due them (in 1945) for their service; when Senate rejected the bill, most of them left but about 8, 000 promised to squat there until their demands were met

Battle of Anacostia Flats:

when a scuffle between some veterans and police in from the White House led to gunfire, President Hoover called the army to maintain order; Chief of Staff Douglass MacArthur decided instead to forcibly remove the protesters; MacArthur charged into the Flats with tanks and a column of infantry, tossing tear gas canisters into tents and plunging with bayonets drawn into crowds of men, women, and children; marked the low point of the Hoover presidency

Franklin Delano Roosevelt:

began his political career in 1910 as a New York Senator; as a governor he applied ideas that would mark his early presidency- repeal of Prohibition, unemployment insurance, use of public works to create jobs, etc.; presidential candidate for the 1932 election

Eleanor Roosevelt:

emerged as the most powerful voice for combating discrimination in New Deal programs and elsewhere; she visited black colleges and churches and invited black leaders into the White House; helped the NAACP to raise money and added her name to fundraising ventures by other black groups; central figure in the increase in women's political influence

"Brain Trust":

began as a term for a group of close advisors to a political candidate or incumbent, prized for their expertise in particular fields. The term is most associated with the group of advisors to Franklin Roosevelt during his presidential administration

First 100 Days:

It is used to measure the successes and accomplishments of a president during the time that their power and influence is at its greatest.The term was coined by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt

"Bank Holiday":

shutting down of banks declared by FDR until he could push a recovery bill through Congress

Emergency Banking Act (chart):

provided expanded federal credit for banks and authorized the reopening of banks under strict new guidelines

"Fireside Chats":

radio broadcasts that FDR used to reassure the nation that the economy was on its way to correction and tell people that keeping money in the reopened banks was safer than keeping it "under the mattress"; by the end of March nearly $1 billion had flowed back into the system

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (chart):

created to insure individual bank deposits up to $2, 500

Beer-Wine Revenue Act:

signaled the end to Prohibition; levied a federal tax on all alcoholic beverages to raise revenue for the federal government and gives individual states the option to further regulate the sale and distribution of beer and wine

Civilian Conservation Corps (chart):

provided jobs for more than 2 million men in army- style camps in national parks and forests; for $30 a month they planted trees, cleared campsites, built bridges, constructed dams, and blazed fire trails

Public Works Administration (chart):

created to undertake an ambitious public construction program; its impact was limited by the penny- pinching ways of its head, Interior Secretary Harold Ickes

Harold Ikes:

Interior Secretary of FDR who greatly hindered the potential of the Public Works Administration

Frances Perkins:

was the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman appointed to theU.S. Cabinet. As a loyal supporter of her friend, Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull thelabor movement into the New Deal coalition.

Federal Emergency Relief Administration (chart):

coalition headed by Harry Hopkins to allocate $500 million to state and local governments to dispense to needy families; half the money went to the states on a matching basis of one federal dollar for every three state dollars; Hopkins had the discretion to distribute the remaining $250 million on basis of "need"

Harry Hopkins:

Head of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration; distributed over $5 million during his first two hours in office

Civil Works Administration (chart):

temporary program that coupled relief with work; headed by Harry Hopkins; workers refurbished roads and schools, and also worked with the arts and entertainment

Agricultural Adjustment Act (chart):

provided farmers with subsidies for letting acreage lie fallow or shifting it to nonsurplus crops; corn producers, for example, received 30 cents a bushel for corn not raised; created a commodity loan program to keep crops that had already been harvested from reaching the market

Butler v. U.S.:

Ruling that declared the Agricultural Adjustment Act unconstitutional

National Industrial Recovery Act (chart):

comprehensive program for industrial recovery enacted by Congress a month after passing the AAA

National Recovery Administration (chart):

"the most important and far reaching legislation ever passed by American Congress; under its supervision competing businesses within a given industry met with union leaders and consumer groups to draft codes of fair competition that limited production and stabilized prices; guaranteed workers' right to join unions and engage in collective bargaining; also established minimum wage and maximum hours for workers; was cut down in May of 1935

Schechter v. U.S.:

Supreme Court case that ruled the National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional

Tennessee Valley Authority (chart):

one of the greatest achievements of the New Deal; spent billions in federal money constructing dams for flood control and the generation of hydroelectric power for Tennessee; provided power for farms and allowed the development of industry in that region, as well as providing thousands of jobs for poor residents; some criticized it as "socialism," but it was immensely popular among people of Tennessee

Rural Electrification Administration:

improved the quality of rural life more than any other New Deal measure; provided electricity to 90 percent of rural Americans by 1950 (fewer than 10% in 1935)

Home Owners Loan Corporation:

provided loans of up to $14, 00 to 5% interest; by the end of Roosevelt's first term s had made more than a million loans totaling $3 billion

Father Charles Coughlin:

a radio priest; developed a following of millions with his weekly radio program from the Shrine of the Little Flower; blamed the depression on wealthy bankers and rallied his large radio audience in support of Roosevelt's New Deal until 1934, when he turned against the president, denouncing him as a liar and a tool of the moneyed elite; referred to the New Deal, which was once called "Christ's Deal," as a "Pagan Deal"

Dr. Francis E. Townsend:

proposed that people over sixty recieve $200 per month on the condition that they spend the money during the same month that they got it; the money for the pensions would be raised by a "transition tax" - a sales tax levied every time goods were sold; claimed his plan would both provide for the elderly and end the depression by pumping billions of dollars of purchasing power into the economy; when a bill modeled after his plan was introduced into Congress, he secured 20 million signatures calling for its passage

Huey Long:

Louisiana governor who proposed a program of imposing heavy taxes on big business to pay for public works; immensely popular among Louisiana's workers and farmers, and used this as a foundation for an extremely powerful political machine which dominated the legislature and restricted the press

"Share Our Wealth":

plan proposed by Huey Long that promised to "soak the rich and make "every man a king"; proposed using the government's tax power to confiscate all incomes over $1 million and all estates over $5 million, with the money raised going to all farmers and industrial workers, furnishing each family with $5, 000 for buying a farm or home, an annual income of $2, 00, a free college education for their children, a radio, and other benefits; this plan had a special appeal to poor people as well as the middle class that now felt threatened by the many changes around them and now lashed out at the groups- Jews, bankers, communists, and Washington- which they considered responsible for the depression

Upton Sinclair:

California socialist muckraker; captured the 1934 Democratic Party gubernatorial nomination, campaigning on a program he called the End Poverty in California (EPIC); although he lost to a conservative Republican, he attracted over 8 thousand votes

Floyd Olson:

Minnesota governor who stated "I hope the present system of government goes right down to hell"

2nd New Deal:

New agenda proposed by FDR that expanded his focus on social justice; found expression in a number of landmark legislations that would profoundly alter the relationship between the American people and the government: the National Labor Relations Act, the Social Security Act, and the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act

National Labor Relations Act (chart):

legislated the right of workers to unionize and to bargain collectively, reaffirming the guarantee inn section 7(a) of the Nationiol Recovery Administration; called "Labor's Magna Carta"; created the National Labor Relations Board; in the long term, this made the government the arbitrator between labor and management

National Labor Relations Board:

created to supervise union elections and to issue "cease and desist" orders against companies that committed unfair labor practices

Social Security Act (chart):

features three forms of aid: pensions for people over 65, unemployment compensation for people temporarily out of work, and "categorical assistance" for specific groups that could not qualify for WPA work or find other forms of unemployment, such as the blind, dependant children, and the disabled; a major step forward in assistance to the "forgotten man"

Emergency Relief Appropriation Act:

asked for the largest peacetime appropriation to date in American history- $4 billion in new funds to be used for work relief and public works construction; in explaining the bill, Roosevelt drew a sharp distinction between "relief" and "work relief," stating that doling out cash was not useful, but that doling out work nurtured self- respect

Work Progress Administration (chart):

became the nation's biggest employer during the Great Depression, hiring more than 3 million people in its first year; created jobs for 8.5 million people in its first year; built thousands of miles of roads, bridges, parks, and public buildings; created the La Guardia Airport, restored the riverfront of St. Louis, excavated Indian burial grounds, and operated the bankrupt city of Key West, Florida

Alfred M. Landon:

campaigned in the 1936 election as a moderate Republicna , expressing support for New Deal goals, but claiming that he could achieve the same results and with less bureaucracy

John Maynard Keynes:

in the General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money he proposed that government spend its way out of the depression; argued that governments needed to abandon their faith in balanced budgets and pump money into the economy

Priming the Pump:

solution to poor economic state that argued that the government should step in to increase spending, either by increasing the money supply or by actually buying things on the market itself

Roosevelt Recession:

refers to a period from mid-1937 to 1938 when the economic recovery from the Great Depression temporarily stalled, lasting about 13 months

John Steinbeck:

wrote Grapes of Wrath which tells the story of an uprooted Dust Bowl family, the Joads, making their way along Route 66 to California

Margaret Mitchell:

author of Gone With the Wind a panoramic love story which paints a nostalgic picture of southern culture and white paternalism during the Civil War and Reconstruction which remained on the bestseller lists for 21 consecutive months

Jacob Lawrence:

drew directly on his own experience growing up in Harlem in series of sixty paintings entitle The Migration of the Negro

Edward Hopper:

member of the so- called Fourteenth Street School New York who tried to capture the vitality of urban life on his canvases

Fourteenth Street School of New York:

painters such as Reginald Marsh and Edward Hopper were members of this group; they tried to capture the vitality of urban life on their canvases

Marion Post Wolcott:

photojournalist who recorded the plight of migrant farm workers for the Farm Security Administration in a number of memorable images

Dorothea Lange:

photojournalist who recorded the plight of migrant farm workers for the Farm Security Administration in a number of memorable images

Joe Louis:

African American heavyweight boxing champ who pounded German Max Schmelling in New York's Madison Square Garden

Jesse Owens:

the "Ebony Antelope"; won four gold medals in the 1936 Olympics game

Satchel Paige:

African American Hall of Famer baseball player on the all- black Homestead Grays team

Josh Gibson:

African American Hall of Famer baseball player who played on the all- black Pittsburgh Crawfords team

W.C. Fields:

an American comedian, actor, juggler and writer who was popular during the Great Depression

Will Rogers:

an American cowboy, vaudeville performer, humorist, social commentator and motion picture actor. He was one of the world's best-known celebrities in the 1920s and 1930s

Marx Brothers:

a family comedy act, originally from New York City, that enjoyed success in vaudeville, on Broadway, and in motion pictures from 1905 to 1949

Walt Disney:

emerged as one of the most successful directors of the 1930s; his Three Little Pigs reminded many people of Roosevelt's assertion that Americans had nothing to fear but fear itself

Frank Capra:

emerged as one of the most successful directors of the 1930s; his films, including Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, reaffirmed faith in the individual initiative and suggested that old- fashioned values of kindness, loyalty, and charity could solve most of the nation's ills

The Shadow:

soap opera about crime fighting in which Lamont Cranston reassured audiences that "Crime does not pay"

Mae West:

actress who defied traditional values during the Great Depression; her liberated spirit and appetite for pleasure defied sexual mores

Hindenburg:

passenger blimp that exploded at it attempted to dock in Lakehurst, New Jersey

John L. Lewis:

member of the AFL that led the demand that the union commit itself to the "industrial organization of mass production workers"; when his proposal was rejected, he signified his break from the AFL by punching "Big Bill" Hutchinson in the nose; signaled the beginning of the industrial- union rebellion within the House of Labor and made himself the leading rebel

"Big Bill" Hutcheson:

Head of the AFL who was punched in the face by John L. Lewis

"Sit-Down" Strikes:

novel tactic in which workers would refuse to work but stayed in the factory to prevent nonunion workers from keeping plants going

"Black Cabinet":

team of advisors for FDR whose job was to advise him on issues important to African- Americans

William Hastie:

first black judge appointed to the federal bench

Marian Anderson:

renowned African American opera singer who sang on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial on Easter Sunday to an audience of thousands, including Eleanor Roosevelt, senators, congressman, and Supreme Court justices

John Collier:

appointed by FDR to reform the Bureau of Indian Affairs; his greatest accomplishment was securing congressional passage of the Indian Reorganization Act; many of his new institutions promoted gender equality by giving women the right to vote in tribal elections and hold office; he also made sure that the BIA offered native women training both in agriculture and animal husbandry and in nursing and secretarial work

Indian Reorganization Act:

restored lands to tribal ownership and protected Native American religious practices and traditional culture; provided for Indian self- government on reservations, new loans for economic development, and expanded medical and educational services

Indian New Deal:

reversed the emphasis on Native American assimilation that had been codified into law by the Dawes General Allotment Act

Frances Perkins:

secretary of labor elected by FDR; first woman cabinet member in US history

Grace Abbott:

a veteran of the Hull House that joined a handful of women reformers to write the welfare provisions of the Social Security Act

Molly Dewson:

closest political ally of Eleanor Roosevelt; served as director of the Women's Division of the national Democratic Party; under her leadership women became an important part of the Democratic Party machinary

Jeannette Rankin:

The lone Congresswoman to oppose the appeal for war after Pearl Harbor

Japanese invasion of Manchuria:

in 1937 Tokyo seized Manchuria, established a puppet government, and dispatched colonists to settle the land; Manchuria served as a defensive buffer from Russia

USS Panay:

American gunboat sunk by Japanese warplanes in the midst of a full scale military attack against china; FDR accepted Japan's subsequent apology

Benito Mussolini:

leader of Italy during most of WWII; dreamed of creating an Italian empire in North Africa; launched an invasion of the independent state of Ethiopia and gained control of the lightly armed country within a year

Fascist Party:

an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism; the party ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943

Invasion of Ethiopia (1935):

Benito Mussolini's invasion of this independent African state in order to start an Italian empire there; successful within a year

Rome Berlin Axis:

Coalition formed in 1936 between Italy and Germany. An agreement formulated by Italy's foreign minister Galeazzo Ciano informally linking the two fascist countries was reached on October 25, 1936.

Adolf Hitler:

bullied his way to power as Germany's Chancelor; tapped into deep well of resentment that Germany felt toward the West for imposing a punitive peace after WWI

Fuhrer:

German name meaning "leader" adopted by Adolf Hitler when he came to power

Nationalist Socialist Party (Nazis):

political party of Hitler; the only legal political party in Germany during WWII

Berlin Olympics (1936):

The 'racially inferior' Owens won four gold medals; in the 100m, 200m, long jump and 4 x 100m relay. During the Games he broke 11 Olympic records and defeated Lutz Lang in a very close long jump final. Lang was the first to congratulate Owens when the long jump final was over. There were 10 African American members of the American athletics team. Between them they won 7 gold medals, 3 silvers and 3 bronze - more than any national team won in track and field at the Games, except America itself. Hitler refused to place the gold medal around Owen's neck.

Francisco Franco:

led an armed revolt against Spain's democratically elected government; Germany and Italy fortified Franco's cause with military aid

Spanish Civil War (1936):

Republicans, who were loyal to the established Spanish republic, and the Nationalists, a rebel group led by General Francisco Franco. The Nationalists prevailed and Franco would rule Spain for the next 36 years.

Abraham Lincoln Battalion:

American volunteers, many of them communists, who went to Spain to fight for the republican cause during the 1936 Civil War

Cordell Hull:

Former Tennessee judge who believed world trade was the key to international understanding; FDR's secretary of state; under him the president developed the Export Import Bank and the Reciprocal Trade Act

Recognition of the Soviet Union:

November 1933, FDR recognized this government hoping to encourage them to pay their war debts and limit their propaganda to the US; this government also had potential to be a major trading partner- a serious consideration during an economic depression

"Good Neighbor" Policy:

New method of diplomacy with Latin America adopted by FDR

Abrogation of the Platt Amendment:

FDR revoked this policy in order to underscore the beginning of the "good neighbor policy"

Withdrawal of troops from Haiti:

FDR removed the American marines stationed on this island in 1934

Road to War Walter Millis:

argued that America mobilized in 1917 not to preserve democracy, but to protect Wall Street bankers

Nye Committee:

concluded that the bankers who had lent Allies money and the "merchants of death" who had sold them ammunition were the cause of American involvement in WWI

Neutrality Acts of 1933, 1935, 1937, 1939:

imposed an automatic embargo on American arms and ammunition to all parties at war; added a ban on loans to belligerents; banned American ships from war zones and prohibited Americans from traveling on belligerent ships; extended the embargo to include supplies needed for machines

Anschluss with Austria:

union imposed on Austria by Adolf Hitler

Neville Chamberlain:

British Prime minister who met with Hitler in Munich in order to address his takeover of Sudenteland

Winston Churchill:

future prime minister who met with Hitler in Munich in order to address his takeover of Sudetenland; sacrificed Sudetenland in order to avoid war and appease Hitler

Sudetenland and Munich Conference:

a mountainous region bordering Germany and inhabited mostly by ethnic Germans; this conference handed this land over to Germany

Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact (1939):

Agreement between Stalin and Hitler to not attack one another; Stalin, knowing that Hitler would come toward the USSR after Poland, made this agreement in order to buy time rebuild his forces

Blitzkrieg/invasion of Poland (1939):

German offensive tactic; Hitler unleashed this tactic on Poland on September 1, 1939; Britain and France declared war on Germany two days after this

Phony War:

belief of most Americans that WWII was a hoax; due to calm that settled over Europe from 1939- 1940

Cash and Carry:

provision of the American Neutrality Acts that lifted the arms embargo against belligerents with the stipulation that the belligerent ships pay for all arms in cash and transport them on their own ships

Invasion of Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, France:

series of Blitzkrieg invasions that occurred on April 9th that shattered the false confidence that Hitler could be contained

Rhineland:

made into a demilitarised zone under the terms of Versailles; Germany had political control of this area, but she was not allowed to put any troops into it; In March 1936, Hitler took what for him was a huge gamble - he ordered that his troops should openly re-enter the area, thus breaking the terms of Versailles once again. He did order his generals that the military should retreat if the French showed the slightest hint of making a military stand against him. This did not occur.

Vichy Government:

puppet government installed in France after their surrender to the Nazis

Battle of Britain:

One of the European arena's for WWII; began after the surrender of France; during this Hitler ordered the terror bombing of London- Britain's refusal to break eventually deterred Hitler

Destroyer for bases deal:

president FDR offered Britain fifty WWI vintage destroyers in exchange for leases to 8 British military bases

Resumption of the draft:

In 1940, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Selective Training and Service Act, creating the country's first peacetime draft and officially establishing the Selective Service System

1940 Election:

Presidential election that placed Wendell Willkie against FDR as he ran for an unprecedented 3rd term; dominated by questions of war and peace as WWII raged in Europe

Wendell Willkie:

Republican candidate in the 1940 election; initially supported Roosevelt's defence policies and focused his attacks on the perceived failures; he then shifted gears and condemned Roosevelt's tactics, promising peace for Americans

Lend Lease Agreement:

agreement unveiled by FDR that would allow the United States to provide Britain with valuable war materials by "lending them"

America First Committee:

group formed to oppose the passage of the Lend-Lease proposal; formed by isolationists who denied that Hitler posed a threat to American security

Charles Lindbergh

American aviator, made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean on May 20-21, 1927; a member of the America First Committee

Atlantic Charter:

most famous product of the summit held at Placentia Bay between FDR and Winston Churchill; the two leaders pledged to honor self-determination, free trade, nonagression, and freedom of the seas; Under Churchill's urging, FDR promised to wage war, but not declare it

Tripartite Pact:

between Germany, Japan, and Italy; pledged its signatories to come to one another's help in event of an attack; aimed to dissuade the US from either joining with Britain or directly opposing Japan's violent expansionism in the Pacific

Hideki Tojo:

militant war minister in Japan who opposed compromise with US and gained control of Japan's imperial government in October; decided that he would continue diplomatic efforts to relax the embargo for three more weeks. If no agreement was reached, Japan would go to war; he set the date for attack on December 7, 1941

Pearl Harbor:

attack launched on American naval base on December 7, 1941; the next day America entered WWII

"Big Three":

The three major powers of the Allies, represented by Winston Churchill, Joseph Stalin, and Franklin Roosevelt

Henry Stimson:

Secretary of war for FDR who stated that business should be allowed to make money when the US entered WWII

War Powers Act (1941):

gave the President enormous authority to execute World War II in an efficient manner. The president was authorized to reorganize the executive branch, independent government agencies, and government corporations for the war cause. The President was allowed to censor mail and other forms of communication between the United States and foreign countries. All changes created by its power were to remain intact until six months after the end of the war at which time, the act would become defunct.

War Production Board:

created by FDR to develop policies governing all aspects of production and to exercise general responsibilities over the nation's economy; the head, Donald Nelson, took a limited view of his powers and allowed "little czars" to retain considerable autonomy in dealing with petroleum, rubber, and labor and he permitted both the army and navy to maintain seperate purchasing authority; most importantly, Nelson tried to gain business confidence by offering financial incentive

Office of Price administration and Civilian Supply:

established a system of rationing civilian purchases of tires, cars, gasoline, sugar, and later shoes, oil, and coffee; also imposed a cap on most prices and rents; "Use it up, wear it out, make it do or do without" became the slogan of this organization

National War Labor Board:

created to regulate wage increases as well as prices; adopted a formula that permitted wage increases in line with the 15 percent rise in cost of living since January

Smith-Connolly Bill:

also known as the War Labor Disputes Act; empowered the president to seize any vital plant shut down by strikes; FDR struck this down, not wanting to alienate labor unions, however Congress accumulated the necessary votes to override the veto and enact the legislation

Revenue Act of 1942 and 1943:

created the modern federal income tax system; starting inn 1942 anyone earning $600 or more annually had to file a return; and income tax withholding from paychecks went into effect in 1943

GIs:

men recruited for WWII by the draft; named to the Government Issue stamps on their gear

Operation TORCH:

a joint Anglo- American invasion of North Africa, where the British has been tied down in a struggle with Italian and German forces; launched on November 8, 1942 with US force under Dwight Eisenhower and British troops under Bernard Montgomery

Dwight D. Eisenhower:

Leader of the US troops that stormed ashore at points along the coasts of the French North African colonies of Morocco and French North Africa (Operation TORCH)

Bernard Montgomery:

leader of the British Eighth Army that pushed eastward into Africa from Egypt (Operation TORCH)

Erwin Rommel:

one of Hitler's best generals; known as the "desert fox"; trapped by the British and American forces in Operation TORCH

Battle of Stalingrad:

German attempt at an invasion of Russia; Stalin's army surrounded a large German force and after four months of intense fighting, the Germans, having lost 300,000 men, surrendered

Casablanca Conference:

meeting between Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill in a Moroccan city in Northern Africa to discuss the next step in the European war after the surrender at Stalingrad; Despite American pushes for the creation of a second front in order to help Stalin and strike at the heart of German forces, Churchill held sway, calling for a continuation of the Mediterranean campaign with an invasion of Sicily

George Patton:

General who sliced through weak Italian defenses and entered the city of Palermo on July 22

Tehran Conference:

meeting between FDR, Churchill, and Stalin in late Nov. 1943 as momentum shifted toward the Allies; Roosevelt and Stalin finally achieved agreement for opening of a second front; Stalin also demanded a buffer zone, Soviet control over Eastern Europe, to protect against another invasion. Roosevelt reassured Stalin that the US would not interfere, but that he could not publicly take part in any such arrangement

Operation Overlord:

the greatest amphibious assault in recorded history, employing over five thousand ships and eleven thousand airplanes; "D- Day" which opened up the long awaited second front from the French coast at Normandy; by nightfall the Allies controlled the five target beaches

Battle of the Bulge:

The one final assault of the German forces in WWII; German tanks crashed through weakly fortified Allied troops in Belgium. Before American's blunted this force 29, 000 Americans were dead, wounded, or missing; after this battle the German machine was in complete and final retreat

Omar Bradley:

Allied general who toured the concentration camp in Ohrdruf after Allied occupation

Kristallnacht:

orgy of arson and murder of Jews that occurred on November 1938 after a Jewish man killed a German official; named for the pools of broken glass that littered German streets; a few days after this Jews began being shipped to concentration camps

Holocaust:

beginning in 1941 German soldiers packed much of the Jewish population of eastern Europe and the Soviet Union into railroad freight cars and dumped them in death camps such as Buchenwald and Dachau; another three million people- Poles, Russians, Slavs, gypsies, criminals, homosexuals, and resistance fighters- suffered the same fate

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