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The concept that describes opening a window into unfamiliar worlds that allows us to understand human behavior by placing it within its broader social context is called ______.

the sociological perspective or imagination

When sociologists group people into catagories based on their age, gender, educational level, job, and income, they are trying to determine ______.

social location

The sociologist responsible for suggesting the connection between history and biography to explain the sociological imagination was _______.

C. Wright Mills

The first goal of each scientific discipline is to ______.

explain why something happens

The first person to propose that the scientific method could be applied to the study of social life was ______.

Auguste Comte

The term "servival of the fittest," which is principle part of the concept of social Darwinism, was coined by ______.

Herbert Spencer

The titles Karl Marx used to describe the two classes in society were the ______ and the ______.

bourgeoisie; proletariat

Max Weber used the term Verstehen to mean ______.

to grasp by insight

Karl Marx believed that ______ was the central force for social change, while Max Weber believed that ______ was the force most responsible for social change.

economics; religion

The French sociologist Emile Durkheim is most identified with which of the following areas of study?

social integration

According to symbolic interationists, the deciding factor that determines if change in society is good or bad requires ______.

a framework or context from which to view the meaning of the change

Functionalists refer to how parts of a society fit together to form a whole as ______.

a structure

Conflict theorists would contend that changes in ______ explain the high divorce rates in the US.

the male-female power relationship

Mark views society as a system of interrelated parts, while John views society as composed of groups competing for scarce resources. Mark would be considered a(n) ______ and John would be seen as a(n)_______.

functionalist; conflict theorist

Which sociological perspectives are best to use in developing an accurate understanding of society?

no single perspective is best, so all three must be utilized

Jewelry, art, hairstyles, and clothing each represent examples of ______.

material culture

When Harry returned from a business meeting in HO Chi Minh City, Vietnam, his wife asked him what he thought of the Vietnamese people. Harry replied, "They're primitive people who eat animals from the streets, drive wildly around town on motor scooters, and talk very fast." Harry's reply best qualifies as an example of _______.

ethnocentrism

While in the Peace Corps, Kristina enjoyed a delicious Cambodian dinner that included several entrees. Later that evening she was told that one of the entrees was roast dog, the same canine Kristina had been playing with the day before. At this point Kristina became very ill and swore she would be a vegetarian as long as she was in Cambodia. Which statement most applies to Kristina's experience?

Kristina experience culture shock.

Sociologists use the concept of "norms" to describe _____.

expectations or rules of behavior that develop from values

The notion that language determines our conciousness is the basic premise of which concept?

Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

If Alice came to class wearing a soiled and torn blouse, she would be violating a ______. But if Alice came to class not wearing a blouse or any other garment, she would be violating a ______.

folkway; more

All of the following statements are examples of countercultures, EXCEPT for which one?

Chicago Club fan

Lamont believes in democracy and equality, and when asked to describe himself he cites his appreciation for people of all races and ethnic heritages. But at the same time, Lamont believes women should not be in the armed services and he avoids taking courses from female professors. In this view, thich statement best describes Lamont?

Lamont is engaged in value contradiction.

Americans usually recognize hard work, education, and efficiency as desired qualities. Where one of these qualities is found the other two also apply. This is an example of _____.

a value cluster

Today we can type our symptoms into a computer search engine and often find out why we are sick, what condition we may have, and how we might treat it. But we still go to see a doctor. This is an example of _____.

cultural lag

What term is used to describe children who are assumed to have been raised by animals in wilderness and isolated from other children, such as the "wild boy of Aveyron"?

feral

What concept do sociologists refer to when they say that "society makes us human"?

socialization

Professor Zale bases her self-concept as a professor on the interactions she has with students and the reactions she receives from them during class. In view of this, which process is Professor Zale utilizing?

Cooley's looking-glass self

The Smiths are going Christmas shopping for their two children, Dick and Jane. They plan to but Dick a Tonka truck and Jane a Barbie doll. Their selection of toys for their children is an example of ________ by parents.

gender socialization

People and groups that influence our orientation to life -- our self concept, emotions, attitudes, and behaviors-- are called ______.

agents of socialization

When young people enter college as resident students, they must learn new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors. This is an example of _______.

resocialization

What term applies to the stages that people pass through from birth to death, beginning with "childhood" and concluding with "the older years"?

the life course

The period following high school when young adults have not yet taken on the responsibilities ordinarily associated with adulthood is called ______.

transitional adulthood (adultolescence)

Because of the power of peers and social institutions, we are all prisoners of socialization.

false

culture

characteristics belonging to a group (such as languages, beliefs, norms, values, behaviors, and material objects) that are passed from one generation to the next

material culture

objects that distinguish a groups of people

nonmaterial culture

a group's way of thinking and doing

patterns of behavior

language, gestures, and other forms of interaction

culture shock

a condition of disorientation that requires people to question their own cultural assumptions

ethnocentrism

the practice of viewing one's own culture as preferable and using it as a yardstick for judging other cultures; an important consequence of culture

cultural relativism

not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms

gestures

the ways in which people use their bodies to communicate with others

language

a system of symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways and can represent not only objects but also abstract thought

Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

claims that language (not objects or events) creates ways of thinking or percieving

values

what is desirable in life

norms

expectations or rules for behavior

sanctions

reactionsto following or breaking norms

positive sanction

approval of something

negative sanction

disapproval of something

folkways

norms not strictly enforced

mores

norms essential to core values and therefore, are strictly enforced

taboos

norms are so strong that the thought of violating them is universally revolting

subculture

a world within the dominant culture

counterculture

groups with values and norms at odds with the dominant culture

value cluster

made up of related core values that come together to form a larger whole

value contradiction

to follow one value means to come into conflict with the other

cultural universal

a value, norm, or other cultural trait that is found in every group

new technology

the emerging technologies of an era that have significant impact on social life

cultural lag

situations where the material culture changes first and the nonmaterial culture lags behind

cultural diffusion

the spread of cultural traits form one group to another

cultural leveling

the process by which cultures become similar to one another

feral

children assumed to have been raised by animals; isolated without human contact

socialization

the process by which we learn the way of society

taking the role of other

putting oneself in someone else's shoes

generalized other

the norms, values, attitudes, and expectations of people in general; our perception of how people think of us

sesorimotor stage

0-2; learn non verbal communication from direct contact

preoperational stage

2-7; learn to use symbols like language; know body language by end

concrete operational stage

7-12; develop reasoning ability but struggle with abstract concepts like truth

formal operational stage

after 12; abstract thinking comes into play aka critical thinking, problem solving, etc.

global emotions

every experiences 6 basic emotions; anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise

sex

refers to anatomy characteristics

gender

the behaviors and attitudes that a society considers proper for its males and females

gender socialization

the ways in which society sets children on different paths in life because they are male or female

peer group

a group of individuals of roughly the same age who are linked by common interests

gender role

the behaviors and attitudes expected of people because they are male or female

social inequality

a social condition in which privileges and obligations are given to some but denied to others

agents of socialization

individuals or groups that affect our orientations to life; family, neighborhood, religion, daycare, school and peers, workplace

manifest functions

the intended beneficial consequences of people's actions

latent functions

the unintended beneficial consequences of people's actions

universality

the same rules apply to everyone

anticipatory socialization

learning to play a role before entering it

resocialization

the process of learning new norms,values, attitudes, and behaviors

total institution

a place that is almost totally controlled by those who run it, in which people are cut off from the rest of society and society is mostly cut off from them

degredation ceremony

rituals someone new to the place may go through to strip them of their current identity and create a new one

life course

the stages of our life from birth to death

childhood

0-12

adolescence

13-17; a social invention

transitional adolescence

aka adultolescence; 18-29

early middle years

30-49

late middle years

50-65

early older years and late older years

65 to death

dynamic self

each of us is actively involved in the construction of the self

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