(also squadristi) Italian fascist paramilitary groups, largely recruited from disgruntled war veterans, commanded by Mussolini and increasingly relied upon to keep order by the Italian government in the 1920s.
Cartel des Gauches
A coalition of socialist parties,
swept into power in France in the elections of 1924; caused an ultranationalist reaction in France.
National Socialist German Workers' Party
German political party that began as a small right-wing group and one of the more than 70 extremist paramilitary organizations that sprang up in postwar Germany. Itwas neither socialist nor did it attract many workers; it was a party initially made up of war veterans and misfits. The man responsible for its rise to power in Germany was Adolf Hitler.
(Communist Party of Germany) founded at the time of the failed Spartacist uprising in 1919, it rejected the legitimacy of the Weimar system and continually attacked its leaders.
(Social Democratic Party of Germany) Founded during the latter part of the 19th century, it was Germany's largest party until 1932. Its strength was based in the growing industrial working class.
(originally called the Christian People's Party) Founded during the latter part of the 19th century, like its close ally, the Catholic Bavarian People's Party (BVP), drew support largely from Germany's Roman Catholics.
The Popular Front
This French political party was an alliance of left-wing movements, including the French Communist Party (PCF), the French Section of the Workers' International (FSIO) and the Radical and Socialist Party, during the interwar period. It won the May 1936 legislative elections, leading to the formation of a government first headed by FSIO leader Léon Blum