Nationalism and Statebuilding, 1848 - 1900
|Austro-Prussian War of 1866||Engineered by Bismarck as part of his master plan to unifYGermany under the|
Prussian monarchy. Prussian troops surprised and overwhelmed a larger Austrian force, winning victory in only seven weeks. The result was that Austria was expelled from the old German Confederation and a new North German Confederation, completely under the control of Prussia, was created.
|Compromise of 1867||The Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph's attempt, in 1866, to deal with the demands for greater autonomy from the ethnic minorItles within the Hapsburg Empire. The compromise set up a dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary, where Franz Joseph served as the ruler of both Austria and Hungary, each of which had its own parliament.|
|The Crimean War||Conflict between the Russian and Ottoman Empires fought primarily in the Crimean Peninsula. To prevent Russian expansion, Britain and France sent troops to support the Ottomans.|
|Carbonari|| Secret groups ofItalian nationalists active in the early part of the nineteenth century; in 1820, the|
Carbonari briefly succeeded in organizing an uprising that forced King Ferdinand I of the Kingdom of the Two
Siciliesto grant a constitution and a new Parliament.
|Treaty of Villafranca|| The treaty signed by France and|
Austria in 1859, which temporarily thwarted Cavour's hopes of unifying Italy.
|Risorgimento|| The mid-nineteenth-century Italian|
nationalist movement composed mostly of intellectuals and university students; from 1834 to 1848, the Risorgimento attempted a series of popular insurrections and briefly established a Roman Republic in 1848.
|Junkers||A powerful class of landed aristocrats in nineteenth-century Prussia who supported Bismarck's plan for the unification of Germany.|
|Realpolitik|| A political theory made fashionable by|
Bismarck in the nineteenth century, which asserted that the aim of any political policy should be to increase the power of a nation by whatever means and strategies were necessary and useful.
|Schleswig-Holstein Affair||Originally as dispute over the administration of two Danish duchies, Schleswig and Holstein, that had a large German-speaking population, it was used by Bismarck to engineer a war with Austria in 1866; it is a perfect illustration of Realpolitik in action.|
|Ems Telegram|| A diplomatic correspondence between|
Napoleon III of France and William I of Prussia, edited by Bismarck to make it seem like they had insulted one another. An example of Realpolitik.
|Lebensraum||space sought for occupation by a nation whose population is expanding. Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the German people|
|Pan German League||It was an extremist political interest organization which was officially founded in 1891. The purpose of the league was to nurture and protect the ideology of German nationality as a unifying force.|