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Steotite. Seal made of stone, used to show ownership. Meditation likely occurred on the seal. Trade was important. Have writing, most likely owner's names. Swelling form, a sense of volume. Animal imagery.

Stereotypical city grid for Harrapan town. Centralized administrative planning. Highly developed water systems. Mohenj-Daro. Built with tired brick. Plan/layout didn't change much over time. Very orderly, gridlike pattern. Suggests a centralized power.

Early depiction of tree worship. Goddess shown in tree (Yaksha - divinity who controls nature and inhabits groves at trees) being worshiped by people and priest with mask. Image of bull/man.

"Priest King" Harappan priest. Wears garment of later priests. Fullness of body: indication of potential power and good fortune. Previously red paste inlay. Wears band across forehead. Eyes closed, may be meditating. Garment is one shouldered. Elaborate hair and bangles and amulet.

Harappa torso Amulet. Red stone. Notice the full body, a symbol of good fortune and divinity. Movable limbs and head. swollen body indicate divinity later (potential for life). Fleshy

Laurya Nandangarh pillar monument, 3rd century bc, chanar sandstone. Lion sits on lotus on top of pillar. Pillar represents the access of creation. Were erect all over India by Asoka (greatest emperor of the Mauryan dynasty). lion represents sun, royalty, and is a symbol for buddha because he was the lion of his clan and his voice was like the roar of a lion. Lotus status. Pillars were associated with trees.

Lion Capital (3rd Century) Sarnath, India. Polished Chunar Sandstone. Rests on abacus. Horses and elephants on capital, animals of royalty. Four wheels. Attest to the power of the Buddha and the emperor. Four lions back to back. Set wheel of law into motion. Four lions + four wheels = 8 directions; Buddha is everywhere.

Wheel placed on the back of the Lion Capital represents the Buddha. Solar, sun; the Buddha emits light. Represents Buddha as preacher; set into mothion the wheel of the law (represents first sermon).

Bhod Gaya. mostly medevil remains. temple is 7 century. Where he reached enlightenment. Early medieval theme. An elaborate, important tree shrine. Alter top from Mauryian period at place of enlightenment. Called the Diamond Throne.

Lomas Rsi Cave (most famous cave) in the Barabar hills. Never completed because of crack inside. Imitation of wooden type free standing structure. Barrell volted apsitol shrine. elephant/ crocodile/ stupa frieze in entrance- symbolic presence of water (buddha) Chaitya arch

Putna Yaksha 1. Chunar sandstone. Powerful divinity. Well dressed. Frontality; made for worshiping at the front; back is flat. planar modeling. Protector of nature. Holds a bag and a fly wisk. Fat, round face. Buddha = Yaksha in scripture.

Putna Yaksha 2. Chunar sandstone. Powerful divinity. Rounded. Notice jewels and fly whisk. Frontality.

Female attendant (Yakshi) (3rd Century BC) Didarganj, India. Polished Chunar Sandstone. Emerged from river in Putna. "Nourishing" breasts. Looks through you: symbolizes divinity. Mauryan period. Full hips, large breasts, belly fat. Leans forward slightly from weight of boobs. Fly wisk in hand, bangles up the arm like dancing girl, elaborate hair. Self contained, aloof, goddess-like, not engaging, the worshipper. Voluptuous, full form.

Bull capital (3rd Century BC) Rampurva, India. Planar modeling (swelling of form, maximum inhalation), swollen, volumetric modeling. (compare to lion capital)

Vadika fence. (2nd century BC) Bharut, India. Wooden prototypes. Sculptures are blocky. Like chainsaw cut. cardinal directions of gates. Great stupa surrounded by this circular stone fence. 4 gates at 4 cardinal directions. Stylistically different from Mauryan; it is abstract, but more elaborate, flatter, clearly imitating wooden models. Type site. Post and lintel technique.

2nd century, bharhut type stupa, continuous narrative, adoration of shrine by royal couple, low relief, flatness, typical after collapse of mauryan empire. 1. arrive 2. circumnavigate 3. leave. (one person doing four things, not four different people)

2nd century at Bharut, adoration of shrine, wheel (buddha) continuous narrative bod, bodh gaya, flatness low relief, typical after collapse of mauryan. 1. arrive 2. worship 3. leave

Swayambanath stupa. Nepal. (5th century) it has been rebuilt several times. Notice movement of stupa upward. Influence of pagoda on the stupa. Eyes painted on harmica in four cardinal directions.

Palkhorchoede Monastery in Gyantse, on the route from Kathmandu to Lhasa. Tibet. 15th century. The monastery and the "Stupa of the Thousand Buddhas" are surrounded by a fortress-like wall. The windowless tower on the hill- top is used to hang up tangkas (buddhist paintings).

Tibetan Tanka. Mandala. Meditation aid. Work your way inward. Late 14th century. Stupa serves as a 3-d example of a mandala.

Stoopa at Anuradhapura. (2nd/3rd century BC) Sri Lanka. References to Bhodgaya in early times.

Sri Lanka. South india buddah type. Amaravati type.

Meditating Buddha (5th Century) at Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka. Similar to Buddhas of Amarvati. Sarnat Style. Gupta sculpture.

Moon Stone. Lotus flower is a fundamental of life. 5th century hemispherical approach to the stupa. Sri Lankan characteristic.

Sigiriya fresco (Sri Lanka) 5th century

Thai buddha type related to Sarnat and east India. 7th century. took the idea and made it regional/localized. compare to 5th century sarnath style.

Bhodisvatta. (8th century) Thailand.Thai buddah type.

Standing Buddha, "Silawesi." Cast Buddah. Indonesia. Amaravati type Buddah with spaghetti flow of garmetn, snail-like pattern on head. . Standard type for SE Asia. Adaptation of South India/Sri Lanka type. Possibly made there?

Great Stupa at Borobudur. Circa 9th Century (800). Java, Indonesia. Javanese version of Tibetan stupa. Terraces upon terraces, material world to spiritual world. Upper terrace has small bell-like stupas. Like a mandala. Very complex. Series of stupa with a central stupa on main floor. Bottom floor is buried (analogous to pilgrim starting on the real world, moving spiritually upward). Similar to a tibetan stupa. Possibly painted white or gilded.

??????? Borobudur. Stupa, second terrace, scenes from the life of Buddha: Temptation of Mara. Java, Indonesia, ca. 775-850 CE.

The Borobudur. (9th Century) Java, Indonesia. Mahayana Buddhism. Heavily terraced

Buddha at Borobudur. 800 AD. (9th century) Influence of smoothness of Gupta style but still Javanese. Achieving enlightenment.

Seated buddha at the Borobudur. 800 AD. (9th Century) Java, Indonesia. These images are inside of the bells. Preaching.

Queen Dedes/Queen of Java. 1300. Goddess of transcendental wisdom (Preajeipramita). Indonesian. Indian impact. Medieval Impact. Elegant form and decoration. Sits on a lotus. Best attested example of a tradition where monarchs are shown as gods, goddesses, and bodhisvattas. 14th cent

Angkor Qat. (12th Century, made buddhist in 13th). Cambodia. Cosmic Earth mountain. Rises from water. The center of city believed to have 1 million people. Note: Buddhism travels through trade routes

The Bayon at Ankor Thom. Originally Buddhist. Built by King Jayavarman VII. Middle tower believed to the earth mountain. The water flowed to the Bayon to flush out demons. 13th

Face Tower at the Bayon. (13th Century) Bodhisvatta faces. Four directions. Directional symbolism. Royal monument/temple. In part inaccessible to normal people. Center of the city. Axiality. Portrait statue of King Jayavarman VII. Political and religious control.

New temple type at Sanchi. Temple # 17, simple shrine with pillared porch (displaces barrel vaulted apsidal type). Circa 5th Century (early Gupta period)

Altarpiece 800 (9th Century) Sirpur, India. Post Gupta period. Lion throne. Donor figure at front. Snake divinities worshiping. Silver and Copper with inlaid bronze. Great example of medieval indian architecture. Along the top is the transcedental buddha of amitabha. The left shows Avalokiteshvara with a lotus in the left hand and and Another Bhodisvhatta on the right. The middle deity is believed to be Tara goddess of wisdom. Notice the donor depicted bowing at the bottom.

Gilded Avalokiteshvara. Notice lotus flower in left hand. NICE JUGS

Crowned buddha (Vairochana). Kashmir. (early 8th century) Very essoteric Buddha in transcendic form. Sits on a tower-like stupa. Earth cosmos and axis represented. Presides over a heavenly realm, where Buddhas wait to be reincarnated. Buddha as king of heaven. Heirarchy (earth to heaven, less important images are smaller). Patronage: elephant army general and princess. SEE REVIEW NOTES.

The Potala palace. Lhasa, Tibet. Present form: 17th century and built on site of an earlier fortress built in the 7th century. Was main residence of the Dalia Lama.

Ajanta painting...color modeling. Buddha as virtuous prince from Ajanta.

????? Gandhara (hellenistic) Buddha from Gupta period. Greek influences, boyish and introspective, eyes are downcast, uneven weight distribution (S curve)

Relief at Armaravait. Subjugation of the elephant (100 BC). Amaravati. Limestone!! Evil cousin releases angry elephant in heat to prevent the buddha from meditating. The buddha demonstrates his power over elephants by calming the elephant. Continuous narrative. Jataka. Deep cut relief. Notice Buddha is not shown.

(Head and two headless figures at Amaravati.) Great Standing Buddha. (2nd-3rd Century type) Memories of heavy set buddha. Spaghetti like folds. Movement away from yashi like buddha

Amaravati buddha head. Decentralization of art. Curls in hair.

Bodh Gaya Buddha of Year 64 of Gupta (383-384 AD). Made in Mathura, found in Bodh Gaya. Made of sikri sandstone. Snail-shell curled hair, hand on thigh. Important because he's introspective; not as outgoing as earlier Buddhas.

Great Standing Buddha (434-435 AD) from Mathura. Thinner Buddha, more spiritual, spaghetti-like folds across body (emphasize curving form). Signs of buddhahood = webbed fingers, extended earlobes.

Notice the curls. Frontality. Ushnisha

Dharmaksha Stupa, Sarnath. Built in Gupta period. Sarnath is where Buddha gave his first sermon.

Govindnagar Buddha dated GE 115/A.D. 434-5. Mhatura. Red sandstone

???? Govindnagar Buddha dated GE 115/A.D. 434-5. Mhatura. Red sandstone

Preaching Buddha. Sarnath, India (475). Chenar Sandstone. Buddhist and Janism use this image. Turning the wheel of law. Sarnath Buddhas are slim and smooth. Inward looking.

North Gate at Sanchi of the great Stupa. Local stone of region

Temple 17 at Sanchi (different angle). Simple windowless chamber

Cave 1 at Ajanta (460-480 AD). Pillared courtyard that surrounds entrance. Center is a small, square shrine, replaces BVAS.

Inside of Cave 1 at Ajanta (460-480 AD. Pillared porch surrounded by paintings if Bodhisattvas. Buddha shrine in the center. Shrine leads to the Buddha in preaching position. Entrance flanked by frescos.

Bodhisattva painting from Cave 1 at Ajanta (460-480AD). Similar to Sarnath style. Artist achieves frontality via color modeling

Bodhisattva painting from Cave 1 at Ajanta (460-480 AD). Similar to Sarnath style. Artist achieves frontality via color modeling. Most likely a prince

Object of devotion inside Cave 1 at Ajanta. Preaching Buddha from Cave 1 at Ajanta (460-480 AD). Remnants of paint on his hands. Preaching Buddha on a platform.

Temple 19 at Ajanta (1st Century). Stone porch and barrel vaulted apsidal shrine. Flanked by bodhisattvas. Sandstone reliefs all over the outside paid for by patrons. Shows the BVAS is not completely gone. Pointed arch. Imitation of stone rafters. Flanked by Buddhas.

Bodhisattva flanking cave 19 at Ajanta (1st century). Likely paid for by patron as signature on cave.

Inside of cave 19 at Ajanta (1st century). Stupa inside on raised terrace and harmica on top. Stupas represent the body of the Buddha; some contain relics of his body. Figure of the Buddha on the stupa.

Indian Ivory found in Pompeii. Likely a handle to a comb. Yakshi type.

Sandstone figure of Shalabhanjika Yakshi. From Stupa 1 at Sanchi (bracket), 1st Century AD

Colossal Buddha, (5th Century) Bamiyan, Afghanistan. Destroyed in 2001 by Taliban. 170 ft tall. Represents the Buddha in his grandest form. String like folds along the body like a robe.

Lomas Rishi cave in the Barabar hills. Never completed, but would have been a barrel vaulted apsidal shrine. Imitates bend wood and bamboo screen.

Side of Bharut Yakshi, notice the cold rigid statue. (1st BC), cubicle modeling. Yakshis at Bharhut 2nd century BC. At one of the main entrances. There to protect from negative spirits. Flattenging of form. Goddess grasps to a tree and hands are flattened to their bodies. Feet are turned. Puppetlike (legs and feet in profile, principle of maximum visibility, shown in most recognizable form, not naturalistic, flattened). He is standing on a dwarf and she is standing on a horse/fish( There are their vehicles, Like wood sculptures/forms, Tendency to be blocky, Indication of their ability to move).

(Female Attendant) Yakshi at Barhut. (1st Century BC) Less active and more rigid. Cold and very detailed. Not as full. Flat. stands on merhorse (her vehicle), fine grain red sandstone

Bharut reliefs of the Buddha's life. Purchase of the Jetavanarama Monastery (my notes say Buddha buying Jata Grove, he buys it so his disciples can stay somewhere during the rainy season). (100 BC). Shunga Period. Bharut, India. Sandstone. Image of donation of monastery to faith. Notice workers laying gold bricks to indicate how expensive the land was. The several buildings imply that it was a complex. Woman carrying vase of water indicates that a transaction was made.

Monkey Jataka (100 BC). Shunga Period. Bharut, India. Sandstone.Animal Jatika (Buddha King of Vinares searches for Mangos, sees monkeys and attacks. Buddha (King Monkey) stretches across river to save other monkeys, but evil monkey cousin stomps on the Buddha.

Deer Jataka (100 BC). Shunga Period. Bharut, India. Animal Jatika. Deer is an incarnation of the Buddah in a previous life. Deer helps man across river. Man tells the king, King orders to have the deer killed. Before the deers death, the deer preaches the buddhist doctrine of not killing. Buddha as the king of the deer.

Yuksha with lotuses coming from stomach. Yuksha as creator. Bharut, India

Great Stupa at Sanchi.

"Stupa 2", Stupa of the Saints at Sanchi. Associated with Buddhist missionaries to Sri Lanka. Built where Ashoka was governor. 2nd century BC.

Relief from gate of the Stupa of the Saints at sanchi. Ashokan pillar with lion capital.

yukshi, relief stupa 2, sanchi

amorous couple, relief at stupa 2, sanchi. example of prosperity, fullness, auspiciousness

Bhaja temple and cave. (2nd Century). Stupa inside. Barrel vaulted apsidal shirne, patronage decentralized here

monestary next to vhaja temple,

Amaravati relief with dwarf yakshas (protective figures). Lotus border (water,earth,sky). Dwarves carrying flowers.

East gate of the Great Stoopa. (1st Century BC) Sanchi, India. Local stone. Continuous narration of the buddha leaving home. Wooden prototype architecturally and in sculpture.

Male attendant on the North Gate of the Great Stoopa. (1st Century) Sanchi, India. SOfter and doughier than the couple seen at Stupa 2.

Sanchi Gate relief. Continuous narrative of the life of the buddha. East gate of the stupa at Sanchi 1st century BC. Relief of the birth of the Buddha.

East Gate of Great Stoopa. (1st Century) Sanchi, India. (bottom arch). Narration story at Sanchi. Worship at Bodh Gaya.

East Gate of Great Stupa. (1st Century) Sanchi, India. Shows continuous narration of the Departure of the Buddha. Crossbeams of the the east gate. Story of Ashoka visiting at Bodh Gaya with tree shrine and above the The Great Departure.

Ashokan imitation pillar at the gates of Karle (1st century). 4 lions at the top. mounds raised on terraces represent power. Great Shrine at Karli. Cave temple.

Chaitya hall (2nd century) in Karle. Barrel Vaulted Apsidal shrine. Stupa raised on terrace to signify greater power and harmica on top. Looking into the shrine; object of veneration is the stupa.

Amorous couple with buddha in the middle. Karle caves (1st BC). Amorous couples flanking the door at Sanchi.

??? Sun god and chariots at Bhaja or Karle cave

Conception of the buddha. Bharut. Elephant nails woman from the side in her sleep. Relief of the birth of the Buddha.

Amorous couple in cave cave in Karle. Much more welcoming and woman is more fertile. Very friendly (50-70 bc)

Headless portrait of King Kanishka from Mathura, discovered at Sarnath. From 81 AD. Wearing felt coat, boots showing connection to C. Asia/West

(Sculpture of ancestor.) King Wima from Kushana dynasty. Sitting on lion throne like Buddha.

Bodhisattva outlining the Katra Buddha. Made of sikri sandstone

Sanchi Yakshi. Great Stupa. (1st Century) Sanchi, India

Yakshi in Mhatura. Similar to Sanchi Yakshis. Notice free form. Continuous of the joyous Yakshi type.

Railing figures. (2nd Century) Butheshvara, Mathura, India. Red Sandstone. These yakshis on the gates represent fertility. Stone fence Bhutesar Yakshis.

Yakshi holding mirror. Make-up yakshi from Bhutesar. very exotic and being brought flowers

Parkan Yaksha (2nd-1st BC). Mathura Region. Model for Bala buddha of the year 3. Sikri Sandstone

Bala Buddha of the Year 3. 78 AD. Kushana Empire. No jewelry, fly whisk, etc. because renounced material goods. Made in Mathura (with sikri sandstone), found in Sarnath. Right hand was raised in open gesture (no fear). Based on Yaksha prototype and this is when Buddha images in human form start to become common. Important because it is dated.

Khatra Buddha, seated. (1st Century) about same date as Bala. Made of sikri sandstone. Ushnisha = cranial protuberance. Urna = fleshy mole between eyes. Wheels on palm and soles of feet.

Bhutesar Yakshi. well rounded. more sexual. very erotic. nice tits. standing on seahors

Bhutesar Yakshi. Handed flowers. very sexual and erotic. standing on a dwarf

Kanishka/Kushana reliquary from Gupta period (320 AD to 6th Century). Reliquary from San-ji ki Dheri. Kanishka Reliquary.

Gupta period stupa reliquary. King Kinishkas great stupa. Model of Shah-ji ki Dheri, the great stupa of Kanishka.

Hoti Mardan Buddha. Gandhara Buddha type: Hellenistic and Roman art resemblances. Curving pattern of pleats and and folds. Emphasizes use of curve and counter-curve. Body is concelaed. Eyes turned away and unbalanced weight; he is in the contra posta pose. Hair is gathered in a bun.

Katra Buddha (130 AD). Mathura stone. Sikri sandstone. Dot on his head and welcoming hand in the air. Curls on his head. elongated earlobes from heavy earrings. Seated buddha flanked by attendants. Seated in meditation position but not meditating. Raising hand for freedom from fear. Very small. Direct gaze with slight smile. Signs of Buddhahood: lump on his head, mole between the eyes, extended earlobes, webbed feet and hands, marks on hands and feet. Very deep relief, not free standing.

Emaciated Buddha. (2nd Century) Kushan Period. Gandhara, Pakistan. Fasting Buddha.

Bodhisattiva. (1-3 century). Lacks final renunciation. Notice jewels

Birth of the Buddah, Gandhara, schist, Queen Maya in the center, Buddha being received by Lord Indra in a Swaddling cloth, 2-4th C. No continuous narration, but snyoptic. Birth of the Buddha.

Death of buddha. Parinarvana

Amareswara temple dedicated to Lord Shiva at Amaravati...it is a Hindu temple...4 gates...circumabmbulation...circa 11th century

??? Slab/relief of Great Stupa at Nagarjunakonda. (Dates hotly contested)...fancy terraces, more elaborate than anything in the north, painted

Relief at Jaggayapeta. Mandhata jataka from Jaggayyapeta. Universal monarch. Hierarchical depiction by size: (King>queen>nobles>horse/elephant). Made of limestone, shows flatness and elegance, universal monarch rules with moral rectitude. Horse/elephant = elite, royalty

Early relief of the life of the Buddha. The 4 major events of his life. Buddha not represented in human form. Mother as a yakshi

Relief at Armaravati. Worship of Buddha at Sarnath. Notice proximity to tree

Subjugation of the elephant (100 BC). Amaravati. Limestone!! Evil cousin releases angry elephant in heat to prevent the buddha from meditating. The buddha demonstrates his power over elephants by calming the elephant. Continuous narrative. Jataka. Deep cut relief. Notice Buddha is not shown.

Bronze metal, small figure, dancing girl. Find no big stone or metal sculptures. Most are in terracotta. In later religion, dancing girls are associated with shrine. Nude woman, elaborate hair style, bangles on arms. Like yakshis. Elements found in later S. Asian religion.
Dancing girl of Mohenje-daro. Bangles are religious symbols. Importance of details and finish. 3rd mme bc, amulet and bangles still worn in rural india, elaborate hair like yukshis

Wall painting at Alchi. The Green Tara. The goddess Tara of Wisdom. (12th Century) Alchi, Ladakh. Color Modeling!!

Ladakh image. Gold image of Boddhisattva with six arms and eleven heads. Idea of creation and promotes power. Sense of frontality. 11 headed Avalokiteshvara. (11 Century) Ladakh. Brass. 11 faces of the buddah. Esoteric interpretation. Frontality.

Parinirvana (11th/ 12th Century) Sri Lanka. At Polonnaruwa. Buddha on his death bed, ready to die, almost sleeping. Accompanied by his favorite disciple Anida who is not phased by the death of Buddha, so evolved.

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