Steotite. Seal made of stone, used to show ownership. Meditation likely occurred on the seal. Trade was important. Have writing, most likely owner's names. Swelling form, a sense of volume. Animal imagery.
Stereotypical city grid for Harrapan town. Centralized administrative planning. Highly developed water systems. Mohenj-Daro. Built with tired brick. Plan/layout didn't change much over time. Very orderly, gridlike pattern. Suggests a centralized power.
"Priest King" Harappan priest. Wears garment of later priests. Fullness of body: indication of potential power and good fortune. Previously red paste inlay. Wears band across forehead. Eyes closed, may be meditating. Garment is one shouldered. Elaborate hair and bangles and amulet.
Laurya Nandangarh pillar monument, 3rd century bc, chanar sandstone. Lion sits on lotus on top of pillar. Pillar represents the access of creation. Were erect all over India by Asoka (greatest emperor of the Mauryan dynasty). lion represents sun, royalty, and is a symbol for buddha because he was the lion of his clan and his voice was like the roar of a lion. Lotus status. Pillars were associated with trees.
Lion Capital (3rd Century) Sarnath, India. Polished Chunar Sandstone. Rests on abacus. Horses and elephants on capital, animals of royalty. Four wheels. Attest to the power of the Buddha and the emperor. Four lions back to back. Set wheel of law into motion. Four lions + four wheels = 8 directions; Buddha is everywhere.
Bhod Gaya. mostly medevil remains. temple is 7 century. Where he reached enlightenment. Early medieval theme. An elaborate, important tree shrine. Alter top from Mauryian period at place of enlightenment. Called the Diamond Throne.
Lomas Rsi Cave (most famous cave) in the Barabar hills. Never completed because of crack inside. Imitation of wooden type free standing structure. Barrell volted apsitol shrine. elephant/ crocodile/ stupa frieze in entrance- symbolic presence of water (buddha) Chaitya arch
Putna Yaksha 1. Chunar sandstone. Powerful divinity. Well dressed. Frontality; made for worshiping at the front; back is flat. planar modeling. Protector of nature. Holds a bag and a fly wisk. Fat, round face. Buddha = Yaksha in scripture.
Female attendant (Yakshi) (3rd Century BC) Didarganj, India. Polished Chunar Sandstone. Emerged from river in Putna. "Nourishing" breasts. Looks through you: symbolizes divinity. Mauryan period. Full hips, large breasts, belly fat. Leans forward slightly from weight of boobs. Fly wisk in hand, bangles up the arm like dancing girl, elaborate hair. Self contained, aloof, goddess-like, not engaging, the worshipper. Voluptuous, full form.
Vadika fence. (2nd century BC) Bharut, India. Wooden prototypes. Sculptures are blocky. Like chainsaw cut. cardinal directions of gates. Great stupa surrounded by this circular stone fence. 4 gates at 4 cardinal directions. Stylistically different from Mauryan; it is abstract, but more elaborate, flatter, clearly imitating wooden models. Type site. Post and lintel technique.
2nd century, bharhut type stupa, continuous narrative, adoration of shrine by royal couple, low relief, flatness, typical after collapse of mauryan empire. 1. arrive 2. circumnavigate 3. leave. (one person doing four things, not four different people)
Palkhorchoede Monastery in Gyantse, on the route from Kathmandu to Lhasa. Tibet. 15th century. The monastery and the "Stupa of the Thousand Buddhas" are surrounded by a fortress-like wall. The windowless tower on the hill- top is used to hang up tangkas (buddhist paintings).
Standing Buddha, "Silawesi." Cast Buddah. Indonesia. Amaravati type Buddah with spaghetti flow of garmetn, snail-like pattern on head. . Standard type for SE Asia. Adaptation of South India/Sri Lanka type. Possibly made there?
Great Stupa at Borobudur. Circa 9th Century (800). Java, Indonesia. Javanese version of Tibetan stupa. Terraces upon terraces, material world to spiritual world. Upper terrace has small bell-like stupas. Like a mandala. Very complex. Series of stupa with a central stupa on main floor. Bottom floor is buried (analogous to pilgrim starting on the real world, moving spiritually upward). Similar to a tibetan stupa. Possibly painted white or gilded.
Queen Dedes/Queen of Java. 1300. Goddess of transcendental wisdom (Preajeipramita). Indonesian. Indian impact. Medieval Impact. Elegant form and decoration. Sits on a lotus. Best attested example of a tradition where monarchs are shown as gods, goddesses, and bodhisvattas. 14th cent
Face Tower at the Bayon. (13th Century) Bodhisvatta faces. Four directions. Directional symbolism. Royal monument/temple. In part inaccessible to normal people. Center of the city. Axiality. Portrait statue of King Jayavarman VII. Political and religious control.
Altarpiece 800 (9th Century) Sirpur, India. Post Gupta period. Lion throne. Donor figure at front. Snake divinities worshiping. Silver and Copper with inlaid bronze. Great example of medieval indian architecture. Along the top is the transcedental buddha of amitabha. The left shows Avalokiteshvara with a lotus in the left hand and and Another Bhodisvhatta on the right. The middle deity is believed to be Tara goddess of wisdom. Notice the donor depicted bowing at the bottom.
Crowned buddha (Vairochana). Kashmir. (early 8th century) Very essoteric Buddha in transcendic form. Sits on a tower-like stupa. Earth cosmos and axis represented. Presides over a heavenly realm, where Buddhas wait to be reincarnated. Buddha as king of heaven. Heirarchy (earth to heaven, less important images are smaller). Patronage: elephant army general and princess. SEE REVIEW NOTES.
Relief at Armaravait. Subjugation of the elephant (100 BC). Amaravati. Limestone!! Evil cousin releases angry elephant in heat to prevent the buddha from meditating. The buddha demonstrates his power over elephants by calming the elephant. Continuous narrative. Jataka. Deep cut relief. Notice Buddha is not shown.
Bodh Gaya Buddha of Year 64 of Gupta (383-384 AD). Made in Mathura, found in Bodh Gaya. Made of sikri sandstone. Snail-shell curled hair, hand on thigh. Important because he's introspective; not as outgoing as earlier Buddhas.
Inside of Cave 1 at Ajanta (460-480 AD. Pillared porch surrounded by paintings if Bodhisattvas. Buddha shrine in the center. Shrine leads to the Buddha in preaching position. Entrance flanked by frescos.
Temple 19 at Ajanta (1st Century). Stone porch and barrel vaulted apsidal shrine. Flanked by bodhisattvas. Sandstone reliefs all over the outside paid for by patrons. Shows the BVAS is not completely gone. Pointed arch. Imitation of stone rafters. Flanked by Buddhas.
Inside of cave 19 at Ajanta (1st century). Stupa inside on raised terrace and harmica on top. Stupas represent the body of the Buddha; some contain relics of his body. Figure of the Buddha on the stupa.
Side of Bharut Yakshi, notice the cold rigid statue. (1st BC), cubicle modeling. Yakshis at Bharhut 2nd century BC. At one of the main entrances. There to protect from negative spirits. Flattenging of form. Goddess grasps to a tree and hands are flattened to their bodies. Feet are turned. Puppetlike (legs and feet in profile, principle of maximum visibility, shown in most recognizable form, not naturalistic, flattened). He is standing on a dwarf and she is standing on a horse/fish( There are their vehicles, Like wood sculptures/forms, Tendency to be blocky, Indication of their ability to move).
Bharut reliefs of the Buddha's life. Purchase of the Jetavanarama Monastery (my notes say Buddha buying Jata Grove, he buys it so his disciples can stay somewhere during the rainy season). (100 BC). Shunga Period. Bharut, India. Sandstone. Image of donation of monastery to faith. Notice workers laying gold bricks to indicate how expensive the land was. The several buildings imply that it was a complex. Woman carrying vase of water indicates that a transaction was made.
Monkey Jataka (100 BC). Shunga Period. Bharut, India. Sandstone.Animal Jatika (Buddha King of Vinares searches for Mangos, sees monkeys and attacks. Buddha (King Monkey) stretches across river to save other monkeys, but evil monkey cousin stomps on the Buddha.
Deer Jataka (100 BC). Shunga Period. Bharut, India. Animal Jatika. Deer is an incarnation of the Buddah in a previous life. Deer helps man across river. Man tells the king, King orders to have the deer killed. Before the deers death, the deer preaches the buddhist doctrine of not killing. Buddha as the king of the deer.
East Gate of Great Stupa. (1st Century) Sanchi, India. Shows continuous narration of the Departure of the Buddha. Crossbeams of the the east gate. Story of Ashoka visiting at Bodh Gaya with tree shrine and above the The Great Departure.
Bala Buddha of the Year 3. 78 AD. Kushana Empire. No jewelry, fly whisk, etc. because renounced material goods. Made in Mathura (with sikri sandstone), found in Sarnath. Right hand was raised in open gesture (no fear). Based on Yaksha prototype and this is when Buddha images in human form start to become common. Important because it is dated.
Hoti Mardan Buddha. Gandhara Buddha type: Hellenistic and Roman art resemblances. Curving pattern of pleats and and folds. Emphasizes use of curve and counter-curve. Body is concelaed. Eyes turned away and unbalanced weight; he is in the contra posta pose. Hair is gathered in a bun.
Katra Buddha (130 AD). Mathura stone. Sikri sandstone. Dot on his head and welcoming hand in the air. Curls on his head. elongated earlobes from heavy earrings. Seated buddha flanked by attendants. Seated in meditation position but not meditating. Raising hand for freedom from fear. Very small. Direct gaze with slight smile. Signs of Buddhahood: lump on his head, mole between the eyes, extended earlobes, webbed feet and hands, marks on hands and feet. Very deep relief, not free standing.
Relief at Jaggayapeta. Mandhata jataka from Jaggayyapeta. Universal monarch. Hierarchical depiction by size: (King>queen>nobles>horse/elephant). Made of limestone, shows flatness and elegance, universal monarch rules with moral rectitude. Horse/elephant = elite, royalty
Subjugation of the elephant (100 BC). Amaravati. Limestone!! Evil cousin releases angry elephant in heat to prevent the buddha from meditating. The buddha demonstrates his power over elephants by calming the elephant. Continuous narrative. Jataka. Deep cut relief. Notice Buddha is not shown.
Bronze metal, small figure, dancing girl. Find no big stone or metal sculptures. Most are in terracotta. In later religion, dancing girls are associated with shrine. Nude woman, elaborate hair style, bangles on arms. Like yakshis. Elements found in later S. Asian religion.
Dancing girl of Mohenje-daro. Bangles are religious symbols. Importance of details and finish. 3rd mme bc, amulet and bangles still worn in rural india, elaborate hair like yukshis
Ladakh image. Gold image of Boddhisattva with six arms and eleven heads. Idea of creation and promotes power. Sense of frontality. 11 headed Avalokiteshvara. (11 Century) Ladakh. Brass. 11 faces of the buddah. Esoteric interpretation. Frontality.
Parinirvana (11th/ 12th Century) Sri Lanka. At Polonnaruwa. Buddha on his death bed, ready to die, almost sleeping. Accompanied by his favorite disciple Anida who is not phased by the death of Buddha, so evolved.