Prentice Hall Biology Study Guide 20-1 & 20-2

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eukaryotes that are not members of the Plant, Animal, Fungi, or Monera kingdoms.

Protists are

20,000

The kingdom Protista may include more than __________ species.

unicellular

Most, but not all, protists are ____________

nutrition

One way that Protists can be classified is how they obtain ________

Hetrotrophic

__________ animal-like protists are called protozoans

Photosynthetic

_______________ plant-like protists are called algae

decomposing, parasitic

________ and __________ protists are called molds.

zooflagellates, sarcodines, ciliates, sporozoans

What are the four phyla of animal-like protists?

locomotion

Animal-like protists are classified by their means of ____________

flagella

Animal-like protists that swim using ____________ are called zooflagellates.

long whiplike projections that allow a cell tomove.

Flagella are

one, two, many

Most zooflagellates have _______ or _______ flagella, although a few species have ________.

asexually, mitosis, cytokinesis

Most zooflagellates reproduce ___________ by _________ and ________.

sexually

Some zooflagellates may reproduce ____________.

pseudopods

Sarcodines are animal-like protists that have ____________.

cytoplasmic projections

Pseudopods are temporary ___________ ____________ used for feeding or movement

false, feet

Pseudes= ____________ poda= _________

flexible, pseudopods

Amoebas are _________, active cells with thick ____________ that extend out of the central mass of the cell.

cytoplasm

To move (amoeba) , ____________ streams into the pseudopod, and the rest of the cell follows.

amoeboid movement

The type of movement (locomotion) that an amoeba uses is called _____________ __________.

surround food and engulf it in a food vacuole

How does an amoeba feed?

a small cavity in the cytoplasm that temporarily stores food.

A food vacuole is

mitosis and cytokinesis

Amoebas reproduce by

forraminiferans, heliozoans

Other sarcodines include (2)

cilia, feeding

Ciliates use ___________ for __________ and movement.

short hairlike projections that propel a cell.

Cilia are

ciliate

One type of _________ is a paramecium.

bottle-shaped structures found just below the surface of a cell membrane that are used for defense.

Trichosists are

nuclei

Paramecia possess two types of ___________.

multiple copies of most genes that the cell needs in its day-to-day existence.

The Paramecia's macronucleus keeps

a copy of all the cell's genes.

The Paramecia's micronucleus contains

gullet

Cilia sweep food particles into the _________, an indentation in one side of the organism.

food vacuoles, lysozomes

The gullet traps food particles and then forces them into ___________ ___________ which fuse with _____________ which contain digestive enzymes.

anal pore

Once the material in the food vacuole is digested, the waste material empties through the ___________ __________.

osmosis

In fresh water, water moves into the paramecium by ________.

contractile vacuoles

Where is excesswater collected in a paramecium?

cavities in the cytoplasm that are specialized to collect water.

Contractile vacuoles are

contract, pumping

Once the contractile vacuoles are full, they __________, _________ water out of the organism.

asexually, mitosis, cytokinesis

Ciliates generally reproduce __________ by ___________ and _______________.

conjugation, genetic

When placed under stress, paramecia may engage in ______________, which allows them them to exchange ___________ material with other individuals.

parasitic

Sporozoans do not move on their own, they are ______________.

fish, birds, humans.

Sporozoans are parasites of a wide variety of organisms, including worms, _________, ________, and __________.

complex, host

Many sporozoans have __________ life cycles that involve more than one ____________.

sporozoites

Sporozoans reproduce by _________.

malaria, African sleeping sickness.

Some animal-like protists cause serious diseases, including ____________ and __________ _________ __________.

2 million

Malaria is one of the world's most serious infectious diseases, killing as many as _____________ people each year.

Plasmodium, mosquito.

The sporozoan ___________, which causes malaria, is carried by the female Anopheles _____________.

tripanosoma, fly

African sleeping sickness is caused by ___________ and transmitted by a tsetse ______.

dysentery

Amebic __________ is caused by Entamoeba.

essential

Many animal-like protists are ____________ to the living world.

symbiotically

Some animal-like protists live _____________ within the organisms.

recycle

Some animal-like protists ____________ nutrients from dead organic matter.

water, food

Some animal-like protists live in _________, where thay are eaten by tiny animals, which in turn serve as ________ for larger animals.

beneficial

Some animal-like protists are ______________ to other organisms.

Trichonymphia

The protist ___________ liveswithin the digestive sytem of termites.

cellulose

Trichonymphia breaks down ____________, allowing termites to digest wood.

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