Chapter 21

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Mastering Biology

Which of the following statements regarding animals is false?

Animals that extract food particles suspended in the surrounding water are called fluid feeders.

Digestion is the

breaking down of food into molecules small enough for the body to absorb.

During which of the following stages of food processing is undigested material removed from the digestive tract?

elimination

When digested, proteins are broken down into _____.

amino acids

When digested, fats are broken down into _____.

both glycerol and fatty acids

When digested, fats are broken down into _____.

polysaccharide

Your small intestine can absorb ____ without their being further digested.

fructoses

Which of these enzymes begins the breakdown of starch?

amylase

Starch can be broken down into the disaccharide known as _____.

maltose

Protein digestion begins in the _____.

stomach

What is the main component of gastric juice?

water

_____ is secreted by the _____ and acts to emulsify _____ in the _____.

Bile ... liver ... fats ... small intestine

What acid is responsible for stomach acidity?

hydrochloric acid

Which of the following organisms has a gastrovascular cavity?

hydra

An animal digestive tract that consists of two openings (a mouth and anus) is called

the alimentary canal.

An alimentary canal is best defined as

a tube-shaped compartment for the transport, digestion, and absorption of food.

The main function of an earthworm's gizzard is to

grind food

Most mechanical processing of food occurs in the _____.

oral cavity and stomach

Which lists the major segments of the alimentary canal in the correct order?

oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

Several important enzymes and other secretions aid in digestion as food moves down the alimentary canal, as follows: •in the oral cavity, salivary amylase helps break down _____;
•in the stomach, pepsin helps break down _____;
•and in the small intestine, bile helps break down _____.

starches; proteins; fats and oils

Absorption of food monomers occurs primarily in the _____.

small intestine

Chyme enters the small intestine from the stomach. At this point, _____.

mechanical digestion is essentially complete, but the other processes are ongoing or have not yet begun

Which of the following correctly lists the order of the parts of the human digestive system, from first to last contact with food matter?

oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

Smooth muscle propels food through the alimentary canal by a process called

peristalsis

Regulation of the passage of food from the stomach is accomplished by

sphincters

Digestion begins in the

oral cavity

The digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth. What is the name given to the starch-digesting enzyme secreted by salivary glands?

amylase

Human saliva performs all of the following functions except

hydrolyzing proteins.

The tongue does all of the following except

secrete saliva.

The structure of the esophagus fits its function in that

it has smooth muscle for peristalsis.

The Heimlich maneuver is performed to forcibly

elevate the diaphragm.

The mucous-producing cells that line the stomach

lubricate and protect the stomach lining.

Which of the following mechanisms helps prevent the gastric juice from destroying the stomach lining?

generation through mitosis of new cells to replace the stomach lining

The stomach mixes food with secretions of the stomach wall to form

chyme.

The function of the sphincter between the stomach and small intestine is to

periodically release chyme into the small intestine in squirts.

Heartburn is usually caused by the

reflux of chyme from the stomach into the lower esophagus.

When the wall of the stomach cannot protect the organ from the effects of digestion, the result is

a gastric ulcer.

Most gastric ulcers are caused by

bacteria.

In the digestive system, most nutrient absorption occurs in the

small intestine.

Epithelial cells lining the intestine have surface projections that increase nutrient absorption. These projections are called

microvilli

What is the main digestive function of the pancreas?

to produce digestive enzymes and an alkaline solution

Which of the following is important in the digestion of lipids?

bile salts

Which of the following is important in the digestion of lipids?

gall-bladder

Which of the following nutrients is digested only after it reaches the small intestine?

fat

Nutrients absorbed by the intestines move directly to the liver, which

converts excess glucose to glycogen.

Absorption of water is a major function of the

colon

Which of the following statements regarding animal digestive systems is false?

Meat is more difficult to digest than vegetable matter because of its protein content.

Interestingly, most herbivorous animals do not have the ability to digest the cellulose in plants. However, in the absence of this ability, they have evolved a mechanism that allows them to survive despite eating only plant matter, namely

digestion by symbiotic microorganisms.

Which of the following digestive system structures is greatly expanded in size in koalas, resulting in a very large surface area for prokaryotes to digest plant material?

cecum

All animals must obtain ________ from outside sources.

fuel to power body activities

which amino acid is found in corn but not in beans?

methionine

Organisms suffering from malnutrition may have a diet deficient in

one or more essential nutrients.

A material that must be ingested in preassembled form because the animal cannot synthesize it is

an essential nutrient.

Essential fatty acids, which are required in the human diet, are

those fatty acids that humans are unable to synthesize.

The essential amino acids

must be obtained from the food we eat.

Which of the following vitamins is fat-soluble and consequently, can be stored in body fat?

K

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