The circulatory system

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heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins

What is the blood vascular system made up of?

lymphatic capillaries, lymphatic vessels and lymphatic tissues and organs

What is the lymphatic vascular system made up of?

Medium arteries, small arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, small veins, medium veins

Large arteries > _____ > ______> ________> _______> _______> ________> ______ > Large veins

arterioles, capillaries, and venules

What are the make up of microvasculature which is <.1 mm in diameter?

tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica externa

Vessels larger than capillaries are composed of what three layers?

Tunica intima

What is the inner layer of vessel wall?

Tunica intima

What has one layer of endothelial cells (and it's basal lamina) supported by a thin subendothelial layer of loose connective tissue?

tight junctions (variable extensiveness), desmosomes, and gap junctions

The endothelium of the tunica intima is simple squamous epithelium. What type of intercellular junctions does it have?

Edothelial cells

What function to do all of the following? Control and monitor exchange between plasma and interstitial fluid, some contain clotting factor (not in capillaries), production of vasoactive factors (constriction/dilation), continuous anti-thrombogenic lining, conversion of angiotensin 1 > angiotensin II, and synthetic/metabolic activities.

vascular constriction (increase BP)

What does angiotensin II do?

LCT, thin fibers, fibroblasts

What makes up the subendothelium layer of CT in the tunica intima?

internal elastic lamina (layer of fenestrated elastin)

In some vessels, especially larger ones, the tunica intima is separated fromt he tunica media by what?

Tunica media

What is the thickest layer in arteries and is helically arranged layers of smooth muscle and / or elastin sheets?

reticular fibers and GS

What is located in the tunica media in smaller amounts?

Tunica media

What is the thickest layer in arteries?

external elastic lamina

In larger arteries what separates the tunica media from the tunica adventitia?

Tunica externa (adventitia)

What is typically thicker on the venous side and composed of elastic and collagen fibers longitudinally?

Tunica externa

What has blood vessels (vasa vasorum), lymphatic vessels, and nerves (ANS and sensory receptors)?

Elastic, muscular and arterioles (Large, medium and small)

How are arteries classified?

Elastic (large) arteries

What are these examples of? Aorta, common carotid, subclavian, and common iliac. Specialized to accomodate large volume changes and act as a passive auxillary pump.

Muscular (medium) arteries

What type of arteries are most of the named arteries? These aid in regulation of distribution to body regions in response to functional demands.

arterioles (and small arteries)

These are < 1 mm in diameter or even less than 0.5 mm. They regulate distribution to capillary beds and regulate blood pressure.

Internal elastic lamina

What is located in all but smaller arterioles and most prominent in muscular arteries?

Thickest to thinnest

Elastic, muscular and small arteries and arterioles all have endothelium and basal lamina. How does subendothelium progress from elastic arteries to arterioles?

Elastic arteries

What arteries have fenestrated elastin sheets (40-70 layers)? Tunica media

Muscular arteries

What arteries have smooth muscle (up to 40 layers) in the tunica media?

small arteries

What arteries have a tunica media of 3-10 layers of smooth muscle?

arterioles

What arteries have a tunica media of 1-2 layers of smooth muscle?

small arteries and arterioles (elastic and larger muscular arteries)

In what arteries are erternal elastic lamina not present?

Elastic and muscular arteries

In what types of arteries is the tunica adventitia made up of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves?

Small arteries and arterioles

In what types of arteries is there a thin layer of LCT in the tunica adventitia?

Transitional arteries

What are arteries of mixed types, or elastic to muscular arteries?

smooth muscle and elastic lamellae

Transitional arteries have tunica media with regions of what?

passively

Vessels expand and ______ recoil to move blood along.

Flexibility, elastic (stretch:systole recoil:diastole), smooth muscle in small arteries and arterioles allows for certain distribution and blood pressure changes.

What are the functions of the arterial system?

arterioles

What arteries distribute to the capillary bed?

Muscular arteries

What arteries distribute to a specific region or organ?

ANS motor and visceral sensory

What are the two divisions of innervation to the arterial system?

Parasympathetic (constricts muscle vessels, dilates organ vessels) and sympathetic (opposite)

What is the ANS motor portion or arterial system innervation divided into?

chemoreceptors and baroreceptors

What are the visceral sensory portions of innervation of the arterial system?

tunica intima

In atherosclerosis where are the primary changes?

Atherosclerosis

When do these occur? Proliferation of smooth muscle cells, accumulation of lipids and cholesterol in smooth muscle cells, infiltration of macrophages (foam cells), thickening of CT?

metarterioles

What are a transition vessel between arterioles and capillaries?

single muscle cells

What are spaced at intervals along the length of metarterioles?

regulate blood supply, regulate BP, conserve heat

What are the functions of arteriovenous anastamoses?

Arterial anastomoses

What are direct communication between the arterial and venous systems (bypass capillary beds) and most numerous in the liver, hands, feet, and skeletal muscle?

Capillaries

What have an average diameter 7 to 9 um and <1 mm in length? They are selective barriers and exchange gas, nutrients, and wastes.

Endothelium resting on basal lamina

What is the capillary wall composed that has variable extensiveness of tight junctions?

Endothelial cells

What part of the capillary wall is .2-.4 um thick peripheral to nucleus and may contain actin and myosin and tight junctions that determine the permeability of the vessel?

pericytes

What are occasionally found with their basal lamina in capillaries? They contain contractile proteins and have long cytoplasmic processes.

thin incomplete layer of reticular fibers

What are most capillaries surrounded by?

continuous, fenistrated, and discontinuous sinusoidal

What are the capillary types?

Continuous

What capillary type is the typical capillary found in muscles, CT, exocrine glands, and nervous tissue?

Continuous

What capillary type has endothelial cells that have a complete layer of cytoplasm, frequent pinocytotic vesicles and tight junctions making them less permeable? Also continuous basal lamina.

Fenestrated (visceral)

What capillary types have fenestrae (pores) 60-80 nm, and are found in areas involved in rapid interchange of substances between tissues and blood? (ie kidney, intestine)

Continuous and fenestrated

What two types of capillaries have continuous basal lamina?

Discontinuous sinusoidal

What capillary type is found in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow and are 30-40 um in diameter, slowing longitudinal flow?

Discontinuous sinusoidal

What capillary type has fenestrations without diaphragms, lacks intercellular junctions, and allows for easy exchange between blood and extravascular space?

Discontinuous sinusoidal

What capillary type has macrophages outside the endothelium and reticular fibers?

exchange of materials yet selective barrier

What is the main function of capillaries? This is done by the following: Diffusion and active transport (small molecules), intercellular clefts (hyrophilic molecules; histamine increases permeability), pinocytotic vesicles (endocytosis / exocytosis), fenestrations (non-selective; in some capillaries)

larger, thinner, less, higher, less, less

In veins, the lumen is ____ than arteries, wall is _____, pressure is _____, ______ concentration of CT, _____ smooth muscle, and tunics are ______ distinct.

Tunica adventitia

What is the thickest layer of tunica in the veins?

valves

What assist blood flow through veins and have endothelium covering and thin layer of CT with high elastic fiber content?

Valves

What are most numerous in medium and large veins of the LE and lower trunk?

Skeletal muscle contraction

What is essential for blood flow?

Venules

What are < 1 mm in diameter and exchange between blood and tissue fluid? Also susceptible to histamine.

Small and medium veins

What are 1-9 mm in diameter and are cutaneous and deeper veins of the extremeties?

Large veins

What are these examples of? Inf vena cava, portal, splenic, superior mesenteric, external iliac, etc.

Absent to thick (all have endothelium with basal lamina)

How does subendothelium change from venules to large veins? Tunica intima

thinnest incomplete layer to still only having a few layers of smooth muscle

How does the Tunica media change from venules to large veins?

Venules

What type of veins have a tunica adventitia of longitudinally arranged collagen and reticular fibers?

increase, increase

As diameter of a vein increases, the number of elastic fibers ______. Thickness will ______ from small to large veins.

Small, medium, and large veins

What veins have tunica adventitia of longitudinally arranged smooth muscle?

cardiac muscle

What do the largest veins contain in the tunica adventitia?

endocardium (internal), myocardium (middle), epicardium (external)

What are the three layers of the heart wall?

Endocardium

What layer of heart wall has endothelium with basal lamina and subendothelium: LCT?

Subendocardium

What layer of the heart wall connects endocardium to myocardium and contains veins, nerves, and branches of the impulse conducting system of the heart (SA and AV nodes, AV bundle)?

Myocardium

What layer of the heart wall is thickest and consists of cardiac muscle cells?

Myocardium

What part of the heart wall is thicker in the ventricles, but in the atria there are elastic fibers between cardiac muscle fibers?

Purkinje cells

What are specialized cardiac muscle cells?

Subepicardium

What layer of the heart wall attaches epicardium to the myocardium and has LCT, vessels, nerves, and adipose tissue?

Epicardium

What is a mesothelial covering of simple squamous epithelium supported by a thin layer or loose CT? This layer is a moist serosal membrane.

Fibrous skeleton

What part of the heart provides attachment for cardiac muscle and valves and is located at the atrial end of the interventricular septum?

DCT and some fibrocartilage

What is the fibrous skeleton made up of?

Cardiac valves

Wht have a central core of dense fibroelastic connective tissue covered by an endothelial layer?

annuli fibrosi of the fibrous skeleton

What are the bases of cardiac valves attached to?

Impulse conducting system

What is modified cardiac muscle innervated by the ANS and located in the subendocardium until near termination in the ventricular myocardium?

Sinoatrial node

What is modified cardiac muscle surrounding nodal artery and acts as a pacemaker providing spontaneous depolarization?

Sinoatrial node, AV node, and AV bundle

What make up the impulse conducting system?

Atrioventicular node

What is modified cardiac muscle and large arterioles?

Atrioventricular bundle (of His) (to ventricle myocardium)

What consists of left and right bundle branches and has large modified cardiac muscle cells called purkinje cells?

Sympathetic, parasympathetic and sensory

What are the components of neural innervation of the heart?

more

Are lymphatic capillaries more or less permeable than most blood capillaries?

lymph nodes, antigens

Lymph is filtered in _____ along the path of lymph vessels; an immune response can be triggered in response to ______.

blindly, larger, lack

Endothelial tubes of lymphatic capillaries begin ____, their diameter is _____ than blood capillaries, and they ____ fenestrations and tight junctions.

microfibrils

What are lymphatic capillaries held open by?

walls, valves

Lymphatic vessels resemble veins but have thinner _____ and more ____.

Lymphatic ducts (thoracic and right lymphatic ducts)

What are the largest lymph vessels called?

Lymph nodes and nodules

What filter lymph before fluid is returned to blood vascular system?

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