Biology Unit 2

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Autotrophs

organism that makes its own food, often by photosynthesis (plants, algae, etc.)

Producers

organism that makes organic food molecules from raw materials such as CO2, H2O

Chlorophyll

green pigment located in chloroplasts of plants, algae and prokaryotes. helps to convert sunlight to chemical energy

Stomata

pore surrounded by guard cells in epidermis of leaf. when open, CO2 enters a leaf, and water and O2 exit

Stroma

fluid in chloroplast surrounding thykaloid membrane. synthesis of molecules from CO2 to water. where sugars are made during Calvin Cycle

Thykaloids

disk shaped sac in in chloroplast. contain chlorophyll and enzymes of light reactions of photosynthesis

Granum

stack of hollow disks of thykaloid membrane in chloroplast

Photosynthesiss

process by which plants use light energy to make sugars from CO2 and water

Calvin Cycle

second of two stages of photosynthesis. cyclic series of chemical reactions that occur in stroma of a chloroplast using carbon and ATP and NADPH

Carbon Fixation

incorporation of carbon from atmospheric CO2 into carbon of organic compounds

Light Reactions

first of two stages in photosynthesis. solar energy is absorbed and converted to chemical energy in form of ATP and NADPH. power Calvin Cycle

Wavelength

distance between crests of adjacent waves

Photophosphorylation

production of ATP by chemiosmosis during light reactions of photosynthesis

Greenhouse Effect

warming of atmosphere caused by CO2, CH4 and other gases that absorb infrared radiation and slow it's escape from earth's surface

Global Warming

slow rise in earth's surface temperature

Self-fertilize

fusion of sperm and egg produced by the same organism

Cross-fertilization

fusion of sperm and egg derived from two different individuals

Hybrid

offspring of parents of two different species. heterozygous for at least one pair of genes

Cross

mating of two sexually reproducing individuals

P Generation

parent individuals from which offspring are derived in studies in inheritance

F1 Generation

offspring of two parental individuals

F2 Generation

offspring of F1 generation

Monohybrid Cross

experimental mating of individuals differing

Allele

alternative version of a gene

Homozygous

having two identical alleles for a given gene

Heterozygous

having two different alleles for a given gene

Recessive Allele

allele that has noticeable effect on phenotyope of a gene when individual is heterozygous for that gene

Dominant Allele

allele that determines the phenotype of a gene when individual is heterozygous for that gene

Law of Segregation

rule of inheritance that individuals have two alleles for each gene and that when gametes form by meiosis, the two alleles separate, each resulting gamete ending up with only one allele of each gene

Punnett Square

diagram used in the study of inheritance to show the results of random fertilization

Phenotype

expressed traits of an organism

Genotype

genetic makeup of an organism

Dihybrid Corss

experimental mating of individuals differing

Law of Independent Assortment

rule in inheritance when gametes form during meiosis, each pair of alleles for a particular characteristic segregate independently of other pairs

Testcross

mating between an individual of unknown genotype for a particular characteristic and an individual that is homozygous recessive for same characteristic

Pedigree

family tree representing occurrence of heritable traits in parents and offsrping

Cystic Fibrosis

genetic disease that occurs in people with two copies of a certain recessive allele

Achondroplasia

form of human dwarfism caused by single dominant allele. exception

Huntington's Disease

genetic disease caused by dominant allele. exception

Complete Dominance

type of inheritance in which one phenotype is dominant

Incomplete Dominance

neither phenotype is dominant (red + pink = white)

Codominant

neither phenotype dominant over other, causing both traits to show

Pleiotropy

one gene influencing many characteristics (Sickle Cell Anemia)

Hemophilia

genetic disease caused by sex-linked recessive allele

red-green color blindness

sex-linked disorder involving genes of X-chromosome

Bacteriophage

virus that infects bacteria. used by Hershey and Chase to show that DNA is genetic material

Nucleotides

organic monomer consisting of five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base. building block of nucleic acids

Polynucleotides

polymer made up of many nucleotides covalently bonded together

Thymine

single ring nitrogenous base found in DNA. T plus A

Cytosine

single ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA. C plus G

Adenine

single ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA. A plus T

Guanine

single ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA. G plus C

Uracil

single ring nitrogenous base found in RNA. U plus A

Double Helix

form of DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape

Watson and Crick

determined structure of ACTG, the four bases for DNA. "stole" x-ray crystallography technique from Rosalind to determine double helix structure

Rosalind

used x-ray crystallography, determined double helix shape of DNA

Transcription

DNA transcribed to RNA in the nucleus. word is a codon, consisting of three letters

Translation

switching from nucleotide "language" to amino acid "language." occurs in ribosome. RNA translated into protein

Codons

three-nucleotide sequence in mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid signal

Genetic Code

set of rules that dictates the correspondence between RNA codons in an mRNA molecule and amino acids in protein

RNA Polymerase

enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA nucleotides during transcription

Promoter

specific nucleotide sequence in DNA located at the start of a gene that is the binding siet for RNA polymerase and where transcription begins

Terminator

sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene

Messenger RNA (mRNA)

ribonucleic acid that encodes genetic info from DNA and conveys it to ribosomes, where translation occurs, creating amino acid sequences

Introns

in eukaryotes, noncoding portion of gene that is excised from RNA transcript

Exons

in eukaryotes, coding portion of a gene

RNA Splicing

removing of introns and joining of exons in eukaryotic DNA, forming mRNA molecul with continuous coding sequence

Anticodon

on tRNA molecule, specific sequence of three nucleotides that is complementary to a codon triplet on mRNA

Transfer RNA (tRNA)

ribonucleic acid that functions as an interpreter in translation

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

ribonucleic acid that together with proteins makes up ribosomes

Stop Codon

in mRNA, one of three triplets (UAG, UAA, UGA) that signal gene transcription to stop

Mutation

change in nucleotide sequence of an organism's DNA

Lytic Cycle

viral replication cycle resulting in the release of new viruses by lysis

Lysogenic Cycle

bacteriophage replication cycle in which viral genome is incorporated into bacterial host chromosome as prophage

Gene Expression

info flow from genes to proteins, mainly at transcription

Cloning

produced asexually, genetically identical to parent. used for endangered species

Differentiation

cell specialization in structure and function

Ectoderm

outside (skin and nervous system)

Mesoderm

middle (muscle, heart)

Endoderm

inside (gut tube)

Nuclear Transplantation

replace nucleus of egg cell with nucleus of adult somatic cell

Reproductive Cloning

implant embryo in surrogate mother

Therapeutic Cloning

remove embryonic stem cells

Enhancers

eukaryotic DNA sequence that stimulates transcription of a gene

Silencers

eukaryotic DNA sequence that inhibits the start of gene transcription

Adult Stem Cells

cell present in adult tissues that generates replacements for nondividing differentiated cells

Proto-oncogene

normal gene that can be converted to a cancer-causing gene

Oncogene

cancer-causing gene

Tumor-suppressor Genes

gene whose products inhibits cell division, preventing uncontrolled cell growth

Carcinogen

cancer-causing agent, as radiation or chemical

DNA Profiling

procedure that analyzes DNA fragments to determine whether they come from a specific individual

Genetic Engineering

direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes

Gene Cloning

production of multiple copies of a gene

Recombinant DNA

DNA molecule carrying genes derived from two or more sources

Plasmids

small ring of independently replicating DNA separate from the main chromosomes

Vector

piece of DNA, usually a plasmid or viral genome, that is used to move genes from one cell to another

DNA Ligase

enzyme, essential for DNA replication, that catalyzes the covalent bonding of adjacent DNA strands

Genomic Library

set of DNA segments representing an organism's entire genome

Insulin

protein hormone, produced through recombinant DNA

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